Gnaiger 2019 MitoFit Preprint Arch

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Gnaiger 2019 MitoFit Preprint Arch

Publications in the MiPMap
Gnaiger E, Aasander Frostner E, Abdul Karim N, Abdel-Rahman EA, Abumrad NA, Acuna-Castroviejo D, Adiele RC, et al (2019) Mitochondrial respiratory states and rates. MitoFit Preprint Arch doi:10.26124/mitofit:190001.v6.

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Mitochondrial respiratory states and rates



Author affiliations in hyperlinks:, Gnaiger Erich, Aasander Frostner Eleonor, Abdul Karim Norwahidah, Abdel-Rahman Engy Ali, Abumrad Nada A, Acuna-Castroviejo Dario, Adiele Reginald C, Ahn Bumsoo, Alencar Mayke Bezerra, Ali Sameh S, Almeida Angeles, Alton Lesley, Alves Marco G, Amati Francesca, Amoedo Nivea Dias, Amorim Ricardo, Andreadou Ioanna, Antunes Diana, Arago Marc, Aral Cenk, Arandarcikaite Odeta, Arias-Reyes Christian, Armand Anne-Sophie, Arnould Thierry, Avram Vlad F, Bailey Damian M, Bairam Aida, Bajpeyi Sudip, Bajzikova Martina, Bakker Barbara M, Banni Aml, Bardal Tora, Barlow J, Bastos Sant'Anna Silva Ana Carolina, Batterson Philip, Battino Maurizio, Bazil Jason, Beard Daniel A, Bednarczyk Piotr, Beleza Jorge, Bello Fiona, Ben-Shachar Dorit, Bento Guida Jose Freitas, Bergdahl Andreas, Berge Rolf K, Bergmeister Lisa, Bernardi Paolo, Berridge Michael V, Bettinazzi Stefano, Bishop David J, Blier Pierre U, Blindheim Dan Filip, Boardman Neoma T, Boetker Hans Erik, Borchard Sabine, Boros Mihaly, Boersheim Elisabet, Borutaite Vilma, Botella Javier, Bouillaud Frederic, Bouitbir Jamal, Boushel Robert C, Bovard Josh, Bravo-Sagua Roberto, Breton Sophie, Brown David A, Brown Guy C, Brown Robert Andrew, Brozinick Joseph T, Buettner Garry R, Burtscher Johannes, Calabria Elisa, Calbet Jose AL, Calzia Enrico, Cannon Daniel T, Cano Sanchez Maria Consolacion, Canto Alvarez Carles, Cardinale Daniele A, Cardoso Luiza HD, Carvalho Eugenia, Casado Pinna Marta, Cassar Samantha, Castelo Rueda Maria Paulina, Cavalcanti-de-Albuquerque Joao Paulo, Celen Murat C, Cervinkova Zuzana, Chabi Beatrice, Chakrabarti Lisa, Chakrabarti Sasanka, Chaurasia Bhagirath, Chen Quan, Chicco Adam J, Chinopoulos Christos, Chowdhury Subir Kumar, Cizmarova Beata, Clementi Emilio, Coen Paul M, Cohen Bruce H, Coker Robert H, Collin-Chenot Anne, Coughlan Melinda T, Coxito Pedro, Crisostomo Luis, Crispim Marcell, Crossland Hannah, Dahdah Norma Ramon, Dalgaard Louise T, Dambrova Maija, Danhelovska Tereza, Darveau Charles-A, Das Anibh Martin, Dash Ranjan K, Davidova Eliska, Davis Michael S, De Goede Paul, De Palma Clara, Dela Flemming, Dembinska-Kiec Aldona, Detraux Damian, Devaux Yvan, Di Marcello Marco, Di Paola Floriana Jessica, Dias Candida, Dias Tania R, Diederich Marc, Distefano Giovanna, Djafarzadeh Siamak, Doermann Niklas, Doerrier Carolina, Dong Lan-Feng, Donnelly Chris, Drahota Zdenek, Duarte Filipe Valente, Dubouchaud Herve, Duchen Michael R, Dumas Jean-Francois, Durham William J, Dymkowska Dorota, Dyrstad Sissel E, Dyson Alex, Dzialowski Edward M, Eaton Simon, Ehinger Johannes K, Elmer Eskil, Endlicher Rene, Engin Ayse Basak, Escames Germaine, Evinova Andrea, Ezrova Zuzana, Falk Marni J, Fell David A, Ferdinandy Peter, Ferko Miroslav, Ferreira Julio Cesar B, Ferreira Rita Maria P, Ferri Alessandra, Fessel Joshua Patrick, Festuccia William T, Filipovska Aleksandra, Fisar Zdenek, Fischer Christine, Fischer Michael J, Fisher Gordon, Fisher Joshua J, Ford Ellen, Fornaro Mara, Fuertes Agudo Marina, Fulton Montana, Galina Antonio, Galkin Alexander, Gallee Leon, Galli Gina L J, Gama Perez Pau, Gan Zhenji, Ganetzky Rebecca, Gao Yun, Garcia Geovana S, Garcia-Rivas Gerardo, Garcia-Roves Pablo Miguel, Garcia-Souza Luiz F, Garlid Keith D, Garrabou Gloria, Garten Antje, Gastaldelli Amalia, Gayen Jiaur, Genders Amanda J, Genova Maria Luisa, Giovarelli Matteo, Glatz Jan FC, Goikoetxea Usandizaga Naroa, Goncalo Teixeira da Silva Rui, Goncalves Debora Farina, Gonzalez-Armenta Jenny L, Gonzalez-Franquesa Alba, Gonzalez-Freire Marta, Gonzalo Hugo, Goodpaster Bret H, Gorr Thomas A, Gourlay Campbell W, Grams Bente, Granata Cesare, Grefte Sander, Grilo Luis, Guarch Meritxell Espino, Gueguen Naig, Gumeni Sentiljana, Haas Clarissa, Haavik Jan, Hachmo Yafit, Haendeler Judith, Haider Markus, Hajrulahovic Anesa, Hamann Andrea, Han Jin, Han Woo Hyun, Hancock Chad R, Hand Steven C, Handl Jiri, Hargreaves Iain P, Harper Mary-Ellen, Harrison David K, Hassan Hazirah, Hatokova Zuzana, Hausenloy Derek J, Heales Simon JR, Hecker Matthias, Heiestad Christina, Hellgren Kim T, Henrique Alexandrino, Hepple Russell T, Hernansanz-Agustin Pablo, Hewakapuge Sudinna, Hickey Anthony J, Ho Dieu Hien, Hoehn Kyle L, Hoel Fredrik, Holland Olivia J, Holloway Graham P, Holzner Lorenz, Hoppel Charles L, Hoppel Florian, Hoppeler Hans, Houstek Josef, Huete-Ortega Maria, Hyrossova Petra, Iglesias-Gonzalez Javier, Irving Brian A, Isola Raffaella, Iyer Shilpa, Jackson Christopher Benjamin, Jadiya Pooja, Jana Prado Fabian, Jandeleit-Dahm Karin, Jang David H, Jang Young Charles, Janowska Joanna, Jansen Kirsten M, Jansen-Duerr Pidder, Jansone Baiba, Jarmuszkiewicz Wieslawa, Jaskiewicz Anna, Jaspers Richard T, Jedlicka Jan, Jespersen Nichlas Riise, Jha Rajan Kumar, Jones John G, Joseph Vincent, Jurczak Michael J, Jurk Diana, Jusic Amela, Kaambre Tuuli, Kaczor Jan Jacek, Kainulainen Heikki, Kampa Rafal Pawel, Kandel Sunil Mani, Kane Daniel A, Kapferer Werner, Kappler Lisa, Karabatsiakis Alexander, Karavaeva Iuliia, Karkucinska-Wieckowska Agnieszka, Kaur Sarbjot, Keijer Jaap, Keller Markus A, Keppner Gloria, Khamoui Andy V, Kidere Dita, Kilbaugh Todd, Kim Hyoung Kyu, Kim Julian KS, Kimoloi Sammy, Klepinin Aleksandr, Klepinina Lyudmila, Klingenspor Martin, Klocker Helmut, Kolassa Iris, Komlodi Timea, Koopman Werner JH, Kopitar-Jerala Natasa, Kowaltowski Alicia J, Kozlov Andrey V, Krajcova Adela, Krako Jakovljevic Nina, Kristal Bruce S, Krycer James R, Kuang Jujiao, Kucera Otto, Kuka Janis, Kwak Hyo Bum, Kwast Kurt E, Kwon Oh Sung, Laasmaa Martin, Labieniec-Watala Magdalena, Lagarrigue Sylviane, Lai Nicola, Land John M, Lane Nick, Laner Verena, Lanza Ian R, Laouafa Sofien, Laranjinha Joao, Larsen Terje S, Lavery Gareth G, Lazou Antigone, Ledo Ana Margarida, Lee Hong Kyu, Leeuwenburgh Christiaan, Lehti Maarit, Lemieux Helene, Lenaz Giorgio, Lerfall Joergen, Li Pingan Andy, Li Puma Lance, Liang Liping, Liepins Edgars, Liu Jiankang, Lopez Garcia Luis Carlos, Lucchinetti Eliana, Ma Tao, Macedo Maria Paula, Machado Ivo F, Maciej Sarah, MacMillan-Crow Lee Ann, Magalhaes Jose, Magri Andrea, Majtnerova Pavlina, Makarova Elina, Makrecka-Kuka Marina, Malik Afshan N, Marcouiller Francois, Markova Michaela, Martin Daniel S, Martins Ana Dias, Martins Joao D, Maseko Tumisang Edward, Maull Felicia, Mazat Jean-Pierre, McKenna Helen T, McKenzie Matthew, Mendham Amy, Menze Michael A, Merz Tamara, Meszaros Andras, Methner Axel, Michalak Slawomir, Mila Guasch Maria, Minuzzi Luciele M, Moellering Douglas R, Moisoi Nicoleta, Molina Anthony JA, Montaigne David, Moore Anthony L, Moore Christy, Moreau Kerrie, Moreira Bruno P, Moreno-Sanchez Rafael, Mracek Tomas, Muccini Anna Maria, Munro Daniel, Muntane Jordi, Muntean Danina M, Murray Andrew James, Musiol Eva, Nabben Miranda, Nair K Sreekumaran, Nehlin Jan O, Nemec Michal, Neufer P Darrell, Neuzil Jiri, Neviere Remi, Newsom Sean A, Norman Jennifer, Nozickova Katerina, Nunes Sara, O'Brien Kristin, O'Brien Katie A, O'Gorman Donal, Olgar Yusuf, Oliveira Ben, Oliveira Jorge, Oliveira Marcus F, Oliveira Marcos Tulio, Oliveira Pedro Fontes, Oliveira Paulo J, Olsen Rolf Erik, Orynbayeva Zulfiya, Osiewacz Heinz D, Paez Hector, Pak Youngmi Kim, Pallotta Maria Luigia, Palmeira Carlos, Parajuli Nirmala, Passos Joao F, Passrugger Manuela, Patel Hemal H, Pavlova Nadia, Pecina Petr, Pedersen Tina M, Perales Jose Carles, Pereira da Silva Grilo da Silva Filomena, Pereira Susana P, Perez Valencia Juan Alberto, Perks Kara L, Pesta Dominik, Petit Patrice X, Pettersen Nitschke Ina Katrine, Pichaud Nicolas, Pichler Irene, Piel Sarah, Pietka Terri A, Pinho Sonia A, Pino Maria F, Pirkmajer Sergej, Plangger Mario, Porter Craig, Porter Richard K, Preguica Ines, Prigione Alessandro, Procaccio Vincent, Prochownik Edward V, Prola Alexandre, Pulinilkunnil Thomas, Puskarich Michael A, Puurand Marju, Radenkovic Filip, Ramzan Rabia, Rattan Suresh IS, Reano Simone, Reboredo-Rodriguez Patricia, Rees Bernard B, Renner-Sattler Kathrin, Rial Eduardo, Robinson Matthew M, Roden Michael, Rodrigues Ana Sofia, Rodriguez Enrique, Rodriguez-Enriquez Sara, Roesland Gro Vatne, Rohlena Jakub, Rolo Anabela Pinto, Ropelle Eduardo R, Roshanravan Baback, Rossignol Rodrigue, Rossiter Harry B, Rubelj Ivica, Rybacka-Mossakowska Joanna, Saada Reisch Ann, Safaei Zahra, Salin Karine, Salvadego Desy, Sandi Carmen, Saner Nicholas, Santos Diana, Sanz Alberto, Sardao Vilma, Sarlak Saharnaz, Sazanov Leonid A, Scaife Paula, Scatena Roberto, Schartner Melanie, Scheibye-Knudsen Morten, Schilling Jan M, Schlattner Uwe, Schneider Gasser Edith Mariane, Schoenfeld Peter, Schots Pauke C, Schulz Rainer, Schwarzer Christoph, Scott Graham R, Selman Colin, Sendon Pamella Marie, Shabalina Irina G, Sharma Pushpa, Sharma Vipin, Shevchuk Igor, Shirazi Reza, Shiroma Jonathan G, Siewiera Karolina, Silber Ariel M, Silva Ana Maria, Sims Carrie A, Singer Dominique, Singh Brijesh Kumar, Skolik Robert A, Smenes Benedikte Therese, Smith James, Soares Felix Alexandre Antunes, Sobotka Ondrej, Sokolova Inna, Solesio Torregrosa Maria de la Encarnacion Marien, Soliz Jorge, Sommer Natascha, Sonkar Vijay K, Sova Marina, Sowton Alice P, Sparagna Genevieve C, Sparks Lauren M, Spinazzi Marco, Stankova Pavla, Starr Jonathan, Stary Creed, Stelfa Gundega, Stepto Nigel K, Stevanovic Jelena, Stiban Johnny, Stier Antoine, Stocker Roland, Storder Julie, Sumbalova Zuzana, Suomalainen Anu, Suravajhala Prashanth, Svalbe Baiba, Swerdlow Russell H, Swiniuch Daria, Szabo Ildiko, Szewczyk Adam, Szibor Marten, Tanaka Masashi, Tandler Bernard, Tarnopolsky Mark A, Tausan Daniel, Tavernarakis Nektarios, Teodoro Joao Soeiro, Tepp Kersti, Thakkar Himani, Thapa Maheshwor, Thyfault John P, Tomar Dhanendra, Ton Riccardo, Torp May-Kristin, Towheed Atif, Tretter Laszlo, Trewin Adam J, Trifunovic Aleksandra, Trivigno Catherine, Tronstad Karl Johan, Trougakos Ioannis P, Truu Laura, Tuncay Erkan, Turan Belma, Tyrrell Daniel J, Urban Tomas, Urner Sofia, Valentine Joseph Marco, Van Bergen Nicole J, Van der Ende Miranda, Van Hove Johan, Varricchio Frederick, Vella Joanna, Vendelin Marko, Vercesi Anibal E, Verdaguer Ignasi Bofill, Victor Victor Manuel, Vieira Ligo Teixeira Camila, Vidimce Josif, Viel Christian, Vieyra Adalberto, Vilks Karlis, Villena Josep A, Vincent Vinnyfred, Vinogradov Andrey D, Viscomi Carlo, Vitorino Rui Miguel Pinheiro, Vlachaki Walker Julia, Vogt Sebastian, Volani Chiara, Volska Kristine, Votion Dominique-Marie, Vujacic-Mirski Ksenija, Wagner Brett A, Ward Marie Louise, Warnsmann Verena, Wasserman David H, Watala Cezary, Wei Yau-Huei, Weissig Volkmar, Whitfield Jamie, Wickert Anika, Wieckowski Mariusz R, Wiesner Rudolf J, Williams Caroline M, Winwood-Smith Hugh, Wohlgemuth Stephanie E, Wohlwend Martin, Wolff Jonci Nikolai, Wrutniak-Cabello Chantal, Wuest Rob CI, Yokota Takashi, Zablocki Krzysztof, Zanon Alessandra, Zanou Nadege, Zaugg Kathrin, Zaugg Michael, Zdrazilova Lucie, Zhang Yong, Zhang Yizhu, Zikova Alena, Zischka Hans, Zorzano Antonio, Zujovic Tijana, Zvejniece Liga (2019) MitoFit Preprint Arch

Abstract: Version 6 (v6) 2019-08-30 doi:10.26124/mitofit:190001.v6 - towards journal submission

Versions (v5) 2019-07-24; (v4) 2019-05-20; (v3) 2019-04-24; (v2) 2019-03-15; (v1) 2019-02-12 - »Link to all versions«

As the knowledge base and importance of mitochondrial physiology to human health expands, the necessity for harmonizing the terminology concerning mitochondrial respiratory states and rates has become increasingly apparent. The chemiosmotic theory establishes the mechanism of energy transformation and coupling in oxidative phosphorylation. The unifying concept of the protonmotive force provides the framework for developing a consistent theoretical foundation of mitochondrial physiology and bioenergetics. We follow guidelines of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) on terminology in physical chemistry, extended by considerations of open systems and thermodynamics of irreversible processes. The concept-driven constructive terminology incorporates the meaning of each quantity and aligns concepts and symbols to the nomenclature of classical bioenergetics. We endeavour to provide a balanced view on mitochondrial respiratory control and a critical discussion on reporting data of mitochondrial respiration in terms of metabolic flows and fluxes. Uniform standards for evaluation of respiratory states and rates will ultimately contribute to reproducibility between laboratories and thus support the development of databases of mitochondrial respiratory function in species, tissues, and cells. Clarity of concept and consistency of nomenclature facilitate effective transdisciplinary communication, education, and ultimately further discovery.

Keywords: Mitochondrial respiratory control, coupling control, mitochondrial preparations, protonmotive force, uncoupling, oxidative phosphorylation, OXPHOS, efficiency, electron transfer, ET; proton leak, LEAK, residual oxygen consumption, ROX, State 2, State 3, State 4, normalization, flow, flux, O2 Bioblast editor: Gnaiger E

Authors: MitoEAGLE Task Group

Figure 1. Internal and external respiration. Mitochondrial respiration is the oxidation of fuel substrates (electron donors) and reduction of O2 catalysed by the electron transfer system, ETS: (mt) mitochondrial catabolic respiration; (ce) total cellular O2 consumption; and (ext) external respiration. All chemical reactions, r, that consume O2 in the cells of an organism, contribute to cell respiration, JrO2. In addition to mitochondrial catabolic respiration, O2 is consumed by: (1) Mitochondrial residual oxygen consumption, Rox. (2) Non-mitochondrial O2 consumption by catabolic reactions, particularly peroxisomal oxidases and microsomal cytochrome P450 systems. (3) Non-mitochondrial Rox by reactions unrelated to catabolism. (4) Extracellular Rox. (5) Aerobic microbial respiration. Bars are not at a quantitative scale.
  • Corresponding author
Erich Gnaiger
Chair COST Action CA15203 MitoEAGLE
T +43 512 566796 15, F +43 512 566796 20
mitoeagle@i-med.ac.at | www.mitoeagle.org
  • Coauthors (listed in alphabetical order); number of coauthors (2019-09-16): 621
Many coauthors have made significant additions and suggestions for improvement of the manuscript. All coauthors confirm to have read the final manuscript, and to agree to implement the recommendations into future manuscripts, presentations and teaching materials.
Disclaimer: This article was prepared while Joshua P. Fessel was employed at Vanderbilt University Medical Center. The opinions expressed in this article are the author's own and do not reflect the view of the National Institutes of Health, the Department of Health and Human Services, or the United States government.
  • Copyright: © 2019 Gnaiger et al.
This is an Open Access preprint (not peer-reviewed) distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original authors and source are credited. © remains with the authors, who have granted MitoFit an Open Access preprint licence in perpetuity.
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SI-units.png

From Version 4 to 5

On World Metrology Day (2019-05-20) the redefinition of the SI units came into force. At this occasion, Version 4 of the MitoEAGLE preprint on 'Mitochondrial respiratory rates and states' was released, in line with our emphasis on SI units for reporting data on mitochondrial respiratory physiology.


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Comments and communication

» 2019-07-22 Circular to coauthors
» 2019-03-12 Circular to coauthors
» 2019-02-12 Circular to coauthors


Linking COST Actions and MiPsociety

COST Action MitoEAGLE e-COST MitoEAGLE e-COST MitoEAGLE countries MiPsociety


The MitoFit preprint


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» Manuscript phases and versions

Manuscript phases and versions - an open-access apporach

COST Action MitoEAGLE
This manuscript on ‘Mitochondrial respiratory states and rates’ is a position statement in the frame of COST Action CA15203 MitoEAGLE. The list of coauthors evolved beyond phase 1 in the bottom-up spirit of COST.
The global MitoEAGLE network made it possible to collaborate with a large number of coauthors to reach consensus on the present manuscript. Nevertheless, we do not consider scientific progress to be supported by ‘declaration’ statements (other than on ethical or political issues). Our manuscript aims at providing arguments for further debate rather than pushing opinions. We hope to initiate a much broader process of discussion and want to raise the awareness on the importance of a consistent terminology for reporting of scientific data in the field of bioenergetics, mitochondrial physiology and pathology. Quality of research requires quality of communication. Some established researchers in the field may not want to re-consider the use of jargon which has become established despite deficiencies of accuracy and meaning. In the long run, superior standards will become accepted. We hope to contribute to this evolutionary process, with an emphasis on harmonization rather than standardization.
  • Phase 1: The protonmotive force and respiratory control
» The protonmotive force and respiratory control - Discussion
» MitoEAGLE preprint 2017-09-21 - Discussion
  • Phase 2: Mitochondrial respiratory states and rates: Building blocks of mitochondrial physiology Part 1
» MitoEAGLE Task Group States and rates - Discussion
  • Phase 4: Journal submission
  • Target: CELL METABOLISM, aiming at indexing by The Web of Science and PubMed.
Coauthors
  • 2017-09-21 Version 01: 105 coauthors
  • 2017-10-15 Version 10: 131 coauthors
  • 2018-01-18 Version 20: 168 coauthors
  • 2018-02-26 Version 30: 225 coauthors
  • 2018-08-20 Version 40: 350 coauthors - EBEC Poster
  • 2018-10-17 Version 44: 426 coauthors - MiPschool Tromso-Bergen 2018
  • 2018-12-12 Version 50: 517 coauthors - Submission to the preprint server bioRxiv not successful
  • 2019-02-12 Preprint version 1: 530 coauthors
  • 2019-03-15 Preprint version 2: 533 coauthors
  • 2019-04-24 Preprint version 3: 533 coauthors
  • 2019-05-20 Preprint version 4: 542 coauthors
  • 2019-07-24 Preprint version 5: 612 coauthors
  • 2019-08-30 Preprint version 6: 622 coauthors - Preprint publication doi:10.26124/mitofit:190001.v6


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Labels: MiParea: Respiration, mt-Awareness 



Preparation: Permeabilized cells, Permeabilized tissue, Homogenate, Isolated mitochondria  Enzyme: Marker enzyme  Regulation: Coupling efficiency;uncoupling, Flux control, mt-Membrane potential, Uncoupler  Coupling state: LEAK, OXPHOS, ET  Pathway: F, N, S, Gp, DQ, CIV, NS, Other combinations, ROX 


MitoFitPublication, MitoEAGLEPublication