high-resolution terminology - matching measurements at high-resolution

VO2max

## Description

Maximum oxygen consumption, VO2max, is and index of cardiorespiratory fitness, measured by spiroergometry on human and animal organisms capable of controlled physical exercise performance on a treadmill or cycle ergometer. VO2max is the maximum respiration of an organism, expressed as the volume of O2 at STPD consumed per unit of time per individual object [mL.min-1.x-1]. If normalized per body mass of the individual object, M [kg.x-1], mass specific maximum oxygen consumption, VO2max/M, is expressed in units [mL.min-1.kg-1].

Abbreviation: VO2max; VO2max/M

Reference: Oxygen flux

 Healthy reference population Body mass excess BFE BME cutoffs BMI H M VO2max mitObesity drugs

```Communicated by Gnaiger Erich 2020-02-22
in: Catastrophe XXX XXX-mass Carol on BME and mitObesity of X-mass Carol
```

## VO2max and body mass excess

### Conversion to SI units

VO2max/M [mL O2âmin-1âkg-1]: The conventional spiroergometric units are based on volume of O2, considering that external respiration involves ventilation of a volume of gas. However, the actual volume of air ventilated is different, taking into account the fraction of oxygen in humid air at the actual temperature, versus the volume of oxygen gas at STPD.
• JO2max/M [Â”mol O2âs-1âkg-1]: For connecting spiroergometry to cell metabolism, the volume of oxygen gas, VO2(g) [mL], has to be converted into an amount of dissolved oxygen, nO2(aq) [Â”mol].
• For conversion from VO2max(M units [[mL.min-1.kg-1]] to SI units of amount of oxygen consumed, VO2max/M is multiplied by the conversion factor of 0.744 to obtain JO2max/M [Â”mol O2âs-1.x-1].

1 mL O2âmin-1âkg-1 (at STPD) â [1000 Â”molâ(22.392 mL)-1] â [1 minâ(60 s)-1] = 0.744 Â”mol O2âs-1âkg-1

### References: VO2max

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YearReferenceOrganismTissue;cellStressDiseases
Hadanny 2022 Sports Med Open2022Hadanny A, Hachmo Y, Rozali D, Catalogna M, Yaakobi E, Sova M, Gattegno H, Abu Hamed R, Lang E, Polak N, Friedman M, Finci S, Zemel Y, Bechor Y, Gal N, Efrati S (2022) Effects of hyperbaric oxygen therapy on mitochondrial respiration and physical performance in middle-aged athletes: a blinded, randomized controlled trial.HumanSkeletal muscle
PĂŒhringer 2021 High Alt Med Biol2021PĂŒhringer R, Gatterer H, Berger M, Said M, Faulhaber M, Burtscher M (2021) Does moderate altitude affect VO2max in acclimatized mountain guides? High Alt Med Biol doi: 10.1089/ham.2021.0081HumanHypoxia
Murthy 2020 JAMA Cardiol2020Murthy VL, Xia R, Baldridge AS, Carnethon MR, Sidney S, Bouchard C, Sarzynski MA, Lima JAC, Lewis GD, Shah SJ, Fornage M, Shah RV (2020) Polygenic risk, fitness, and obesity in the Coronary Artery Risk Development In Young Adults (CARDIA) study. JAMA Cardiol 2020 Jan 8. doi: 10.1001/jamacardio.2019.5220.HumanCardiovascular
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Chambers 2020 J Appl Physiol (1985)2020Chambers TL, Burnett TR, Raue U, Lee GA, Finch WH, Graham BM, Trappe TA, Trappe S (2020) Skeletal muscle size, function, and adiposity with lifelong aerobic exercise. J Appl Physiol (1985) 128:368â78.HumanSkeletal muscle
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Hunter 2019 J Appl Physiol (1985)2019Hunter GR, Moellering DR, Windham ST, Mathis SL, Bamman MM, Fisher G (2019) Relationship between VO2max, cycle economy & mitochondrial respiration in untrained/trained. J Appl Physiol (1985) 127:1562-68.HumanSkeletal muscle
Hunter 2019 J Appl Physiol2019Hunter GR, Moellering DR, Windham ST, Mathis SL, Bamman MM, Fisher G (2019) Relationship between VÌo2peak, cycle economy, and mitochondrial respiration in untrained/trained. J Appl Physiol 127:1562-8.HumanSkeletal muscle
Chroeis 2019 Eur J Sport Sci2019ChrĂžis KM, Dohlmann TL, SĂžgaard D, Hansen CV, Dela F, Helge JW, Larsen S (2019) Mitochondrial adaptations to high intensity interval training in older females and males. Eur J Sport Sci 20:135-45.HumanSkeletal muscleAging;senescence
Cardinale 2019 Front Physiol2019Cardinale DA, Larsen FJ, LĂ€nnerstrĂ¶m J, Manselin T, SĂ¶dergĂ„rd O, Mijwel S, Lindholm P, Ekblom B, Boushel R (2019) Influence of hyperoxic-supplemented high-intensity interval training on hemotological and muscle mitochondrial adaptations in trained cyclists. Front Physiol 10:730.HumanSkeletal muscle
Cardinale 2018 Front Physiol2018Cardinale DA, Larsen FJ, Schiffer TA, Morales-Alamo D, Ekblom B, Calbet JAL, Holmberg HC, Boushel R (2018) Superior intrinsic mitochondrial respiration in women than in men. Front Physiol 9:1133.HumanSkeletal muscle
Distefano 2018 J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle2018Distefano G, Standley RA, Zhang X, Carnero EA, Yi F, Cornnell HH, Coen PM (2018) Physical activity unveils the relationship between mitochondrial energetics, muscle quality, and physical function in older adults. J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle 9:279-94.HumanSkeletal muscleAging;senescence
Gonzalez-Freire 2018 Aging Cell2018Gonzalez-Freire M, Scalzo P, D'Agostino J, Moore ZA, Diaz-Ruiz A, Fabbri E, Zane A, Chen B, Becker KG, Lehrmann E, Zukley L, Chia CW, Tanaka T, Coen PM, Bernier M, de Cabo R, Ferrucci L (2018) Skeletal muscle ex vivo mitochondrial respiration parallels decline in vivo oxidative capacity, cardiorespiratory fitness, and muscle strength: the Baltimore longitudinal study of aging. Aging Cell 17.HumanSkeletal muscleAging;senescence
Robach 2018 Scand J Med Sci Sports2018Robach P, Hansen J, Pichon A, Meinild Lundby AK, Dandanell S, SlettalĂžkken Falch G, HammarstrĂ¶m D, Pesta DH, Siebenmann C, Keiser S, KĂ©rivel P, Whist JE, RĂžnnestad BR, Lundby C (2018) Hypobaric live high-train low does not improve aerobic performance more than live low-train low in cross-country skiers. Scand J Med Sci Sports 28:1636-52.HumanSkeletal muscleHypoxia
Lund 2018 Acta Physiol (Oxf)2018Lund MT, Larsen S, Hansen M, Courraud J, Floyd AK, StĂžckel M, Helge JW, Dela F (2018) Mitochondrial respiratory capacity remains stable despite a comprehensive and sustained increase in insulin sensitivity in obese patients undergoing gastric bypass surgery. Acta Physiol (Oxf) 223:e13032.HumanSkeletal muscleDiabetes
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Allard 2018 J Clin Endocrinol Metab2018Allard NAE, Schirris TJJ, Verheggen RJ, Russel FGM, Rodenburg RJ, Smeitink JAM, Thompson PD, Hopman MTE, Timmers S (2018) Statins affect skeletal muscle performance: evidence for disturbances in energy metabolism. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 103:75-84.HumanSkeletal muscleMyopathy
Lalia 2017 Aging (Albany NY)2017Lalia AZ, Dasari S, Robinson MM, Abid H, Morse DM, Klaus KA, Lanza IR (2017) Influence of omega-3 fatty acids on skeletal muscle protein metabolism and mitochondrial bioenergetics in older adults. Aging (Albany NY) 9:1096-1129.HumanSkeletal muscleAging;senescence
Goedecke 2017 JMIR Res Protoc2017Goedecke JH, Mendham AE, Clamp L, Nono Nankam PA, Fortuin-de Smidt MC, Phiri L, Micklesfield LK, Keswell D, Woudberg NJ, Lecour S, Alhamud A, Kaba M, Lutomia FM, van Jaarsveld PJ, de Villiers A, Kahn SE, Chorell E, Hauksson J, Olsson T (2017) An exercise intervention to unravel the mechanisms underlying insulin resistance in a cohort of black South African women: Protocol for a randomized controlled trial. JMIR Res Protoc 03/10/2017:9098.HumanSkeletal muscle
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Kenny 2017 Diabetologia2017Kenny HC, Rudwill F, Breen L, Salanova M, Blottner D, Heise T, Heer M, Blanc S, O'Gorman DJ (2017) Bed rest and resistive vibration exercise unveil novel links between skeletal muscle mitochondrial function and insulin resistance. Diabetologia 60:1491-501.HumanSkeletal muscleDiabetes
Wu 2017 Sci Rep2017Wu LH, Chang SC, Fu TC, Huang CH, Wang JS (2017) High-intensity interval training improves mitochondrial function and suppresses thrombin generation in platelets undergoing hypoxic stress. Sci Rep 7:4191.HumanBlood cells
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Greggio 2017 Cell Metab2017Greggio C, Jha P, Kulkarni SS, Lagarrigue S, Broskey NT, Boutant M, Wang X, Alonso SC, Ofori E, Auwerx J, CantĂł C, Amati F (2017) Enhanced respiratory chain supercomplex formation in response to exercise in human skeletal muscle. Cell Metab 25:301-11.HumanSkeletal muscle
Mondal 2017 J Clin Diagn Res2017Mondal H, Mishra SP (2017) Effect of BMI, body fat percentage and fat free mass on maximal oxygen consumption in healthy young adults. J Clin Diagn Res 11:CC17-20.HumanObesity
Nabben 2017 Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol2017Nabben M, Schmitz JP, Ciapaite J, Le Clercq CM, van Riel NA, Haak HR, Nicolay K, de Coo IF, Smeets HJ, Praet SF, van Loon LJ, Prompers JJ (2017) Dietary nitrate does not reduce oxygen cost of exercise or improve muscle mitochondrial function in mitochondrial myopathy patients. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 312:689-701.HumanSkeletal muscleMyopathy
Asping 2017 Eur J Clin Pharmacol2017Asping M, Stride N, SĂžgaard D, Dohlmann TL, Helge JW, Dela F, Larsen S (2017) The effects of 2 weeks of statin treatment on mitochondrial respiratory capacity in middle-aged males: the LIFESTAT study. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 73:679-87.Human
Salvadego 2016 J Appl Physiol (1985)2016Salvadego D, Keramidas ME, Brocca L, Domenis R, Mavelli I, Rittweger J, Eiken O, Mekjavic IB, Grassi B (2016) Separate and combined effects of a 10-d exposure to hypoxia and inactivity on oxidative function in vivo and mitochondrial respiration ex vivo in humans. J Appl Physiol (1985) 121:154-63.HumanSkeletal muscleCryopreservation
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Johnson 2016 Diabetes2016Johnson ML, Distelmaier K, Lanza IR, Irving BA, Robinson MM, Konopka AR, Shulman GI, Nair KS (2016) Mechanism by which caloric restriction improves insulin sensitivity in sedentary obese adults. Diabetes 65:74-84.HumanSkeletal muscleDiabetes
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Tam 2016 Eur J Appl Physiol2016Tam E, Bruseghini P, Calabria E, Sacco LD, Doria C, Grassi B, Pietrangelo T, Pogliaghi S, Reggiani C, Salvadego D, Schena F, Toniolo L, Verratti V, Vernillo G, Capelli C (2016) Gokyo Khumbu/Ama Dablam Trek 2012: effects of physical training and high-altitude exposure on oxidative metabolism, muscle composition, and metabolic cost of walking in women. Eur J Appl Physiol 116:129-44.HumanSkeletal muscle
Spendiff 2016 J Physiol2016Spendiff S, Vuda M, Gouspillou G, Aare S, Perez A, Morais JA, Jagoe RT, Filion ME, Glicksman R, Kapchinsky S, MacMillan NJ, Pion CH, Aubertin-Leheudre M, Hettwer S, Correa JA, Taivassalo T, Hepple RT (2016) Denervation drives mitochondrial dysfunction in skeletal muscle of octogenarians. J Physiol 594:7361-79.Human
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Lalia 2016 J Clin Endocrinol Metab2016Lalia AZ, Dasari S, Johnson ML, Robinson MM, Konopka AR, Distelmaier K, Port JD, Glavin MT, Esponda RR, Nair KS, Lanza IR (2016) Predictors of whole-body insulin sensitivity across ages and adiposity in adult humans. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 101:626-34.HumanSkeletal muscleAging;senescence
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Gifford 2016 J Physiol2016Gifford JR, Garten RS, Nelson AD, Trinity JD, Layec G, Witman MA, Weavil JC, Mangum T, Hart C, Etheredge C, Jessop J, Bledsoe A, Morgan DE, Wray DW, Richardson RS (2016) Symmorphosis and skeletal muscle VO2max: in vivo and in vitro measures reveal differing constraints in the exercise-trained and untrained human. https://doi.org/10.1113/JP271229HumanSkeletal muscle
Gemmink 2016 Diabetologia2016Gemmink A, Bosma M, Kuijpers HJ, Hoeks J, Schaart G, van Zandvoort MA, Schrauwen P, Hesselink MK (2016) Decoration of intramyocellular lipid droplets with PLIN5 modulates fasting-induced insulin resistance and lipotoxicity in humans. Diabetologia 59:1040-8.HumanSkeletal muscleDiabetes
Ludzki 2015 Diabetes2015Ludzki A, Paglialunga S, Smith BK, Herbst EA, Allison MK, Heigenhauser GJ, Neufer PD, Holloway GP (2015) Rapid repression of ADP transport by palmitoyl-CoA is attenuated by exercise training in humans; a potential mechanism to decrease oxidative stress and improve skeletal muscle insulin signaling. Diabetes 64:2769-79.Human
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Gnaiger 2015 Scand J Med Sci Sports2015Gnaiger E, Boushel R, SĂžndergaard H, Munch-Andersen T, Damsgaard R, Hagen C, DĂ­ez-SĂĄnchez C, Ara I, Wright-Paradis C, Schrauwen P, Hesselink M, Calbet JAL, Christiansen M, Helge JW, Saltin B (2015) Mitochondrial coupling and capacity of oxidative phosphorylation in skeletal muscle of Inuit and caucasians in the arctic winter. https://doi.org/10.1111/sms.12612HumanSkeletal muscleTemperature
Tompuri 2015 Clin Physiol Funct Imaging2015Tompuri T, Lintu N, Savonen K, Laitinen T, Laaksonen D, JĂ€Ă€skelĂ€inen J, Lakka TA (2015) Measures of cardiorespiratory fitness in relation to measures of body size and composition among children. Clin Physiol Funct Imaging 35:469-77.HumanObesity
Boushel 2015 Scand J Med Sci Sports2015Boushel R, Gnaiger E, Larsen FJ, Helge JW, Gonzalez-Alonso J, Ara I, Munch-Andersen T, van Hall G, SĂžndergaard H, Saltin B, Calbet JAL (2015) Maintained peak leg and pulmonary VO2 despite substantial reduction in muscle mitochondrial capacity. Scand J Med Sci Sports 25 (Suppl 4):135â43.HumanSkeletal muscle
Irving 2015 J Clin Endocrinol Metab2015Irving BA, Lanza IR, Henderson GC, Rao RR, Spiegelman BM, Nair KS (2015) Combined training enhances skeletal muscle mitochondrial oxidative capacity independent of age. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 100:1654-63.HumanSkeletal muscle
Coen 2015 Diabetes2015Coen PM, Menshikova EV, Distefano G, Zheng D, Tanner CJ, Standley RA, Helbling NL, Dubis GS, Ritov VB, Xie H, Desimone ME, Smith SR, Stefanovic-Racic M, Toledo FG, Houmard JA, Goodpaster BH (2015) Exercise and weight loss improve muscle mitochondrial respiration, lipid partitioning, and insulin sensitivity after gastric bypass surgery. Diabetes 64:3737-50.HumanSkeletal muscleObesity
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Broskey 2014 J Clin Endocrinol Metab2014Broskey NT, Greggio C, Boss A, Boutant M, Dwyer A, Schlueter L, Hans D, Gremion G, Kreis R, Boesch C, Canto AC, Amati F (2014) Skeletal muscle mitochondria in the elderly: effects of physical fitness and exercise training. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 99:1852-61.HumanSkeletal muscleCryopreservationAging;senescence
Ludzki 2014 Thesis2014Ludzki AC (2014) Palmitoyl-CoA inhibition of mitochondrial ADP sensitivity is attenuated by exercise training in human skeletal muscle. Master's Thesis 1-86.Human
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## References: BME and VO2max

Â» VO2max
Reference
Bakkman 2007 ActaPhysiolBakkman L, Sahlin K, Holmberg HC, Tonkonogi M (2007) Quantitative and qualitative adaptation of human skeletal muscle mitochondria to hypoxic compared with normoxic training at the same relative work rate. Acta Physiol (Oxford) 190:243â51.
Boushel 2007 DiabetologiaBoushel RC, Gnaiger E, Schjerling P, Skovbro M, Kraunsoee R, Dela F (2007) Patients with Type 2 diabetes have normal mitochondrial function in skeletal muscle. Diabetologia 50:790-6.
Chambers 2020 J Appl Physiol (1985)Chambers TL, Burnett TR, Raue U, Lee GA, Finch WH, Graham BM, Trappe TA, Trappe S (2020) Skeletal muscle size, function, and adiposity with lifelong aerobic exercise. J Appl Physiol (1985) 128:368â78.
Daussin 2008 Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp PhysiolDaussin FN, Zoll J, Dufour SP, Ponsot E, Lonsdorfer-Wolf E, Doutreleau S, Mettauer B, Piquard F, Geny B, Richard R (2008) Effect of interval versus continuous training on cardiorespiratory and mitochondrial functions: relationship to aerobic performance improvements in sedentary subjects. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 295:R264-72.
Garnier 2005 FASEB JGarnier A, Fortin D, Zoll J, N'Guessan B, Mettauer B, Lampert E, Veksler V, Ventura-Clapier R (2005) Coordinated changes in mitochondrial function and biogenesis in healthy and diseased human skeletal muscle. FASEB J 19:43-52.
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Gnaiger 2019 MiP2019
OXPHOS capacity in human muscle tissue and body mass excess â the MitoEAGLE mission towards an integrative database (Version 6; 2020-01-12).
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## MitoPedia: BME and mitObesity

Â» Body mass excess and mitObesity | BME and mitObesity news | Summary |

TermAbbreviationDescription
BME cutoff pointsBME cutoffObesity is defined as a disease associated with an excess of body fat with respect to a healthy reference condition. Cutoff points for body mass excess, BME cutoff points, define the critical values for underweight (-0.1 and -0.2), overweight (0.2), and various degrees of obesity (0.4, 0.6, 0.8, and above). BME cutoffs are calibrated by crossover-points of BME with established BMI cutoffs.
Body fat excessBFEIn the healthy reference population (HRP), there is zero body fat excess, BFE, and the fraction of excess body fat in the HRP is expressed - by definition - relative to the reference body mass, MÂ°, at any given height. Importantly, body fat excess, BFE, and body mass excess, BME, are linearly related, which is not the case for the body mass index, BMI.
Body massm [kg]; M [kgÂ·x-1]The body mass M is the mass (kilogram [kg]) of an individual (object) [x] and is expressed in units [kg/x]. Whereas the body weight changes as a function of gravitational force (you are weightless at zero gravity; your floating weight in water is different from your weight in air), your mass is independent of gravitational force, and it is the same in air and water.
Body mass excessBMEThe body mass excess, BME, is an index of obesity and as such BME is a lifestyle metric. The BME is a measure of the extent to which your actual body mass, M [kg/x], deviates from MÂ° [kg/x], which is the reference body mass [kg] per individual [x] without excess body fat in the healthy reference population, HRP. A balanced BME is BMEÂ° = 0.0 with a band width of -0.1 towards underweight and +0.2 towards overweight. The BME is linearly related to the body fat excess.
Body mass indexBMIThe body mass index, BMI, is the ratio of body mass to height squared (BMI=MÂ·H-2), recommended by the WHO as a general indicator of underweight (BMI<18.5 kgÂ·m-2), overweight (BMI>25 kgÂ·m-2) and obesity (BMI>30 kgÂ·m-2). Keys et al (1972; see 2014) emphasized that 'the prime criterion must be the relative independence of the index from height'. It is exactly the dependence of the BMI on height - from children to adults, women to men, Caucasians to Asians -, which requires adjustments of BMI-cutoff points. This deficiency is resolved by the body mass excess relative to the healthy reference population.
ComorbidityComorbidities are common in obesogenic lifestyle-induced early aging. These are preventable, non-communicable diseases with strong associations to obesity. In many studies, cause and effect in the sequence of onset of comorbidities remain elusive. Chronic degenerative diseases are commonly obesity-induced. The search for the link between obesity and the etiology of diverse preventable diseases lead to the hypothesis, that mitochondrial dysfunction is the common mechanism, summarized in the term 'mitObesity'.
Healthy reference populationHRPA healthy reference population, HRP, establishes the baseline for the relation between body mass and height in healthy people of zero underweight or overweight, providing a reference for evaluation of deviations towards underweight or overweight and obesity. The WHO Child Growth Standards (WHO-CGS) on height and body mass refer to healthy girls and boys from Brazil, Ghana, India, Norway, Oman and the USA. The Committee on Biological Handbooks compiled data on height and body mass of healthy males from infancy to old age (USA), published before emergence of the fast-food and soft-drink epidemic. Four allometric phases are distinguished with distinct allometric exponents. At heights above 1.26 m/x the allometric exponent is 2.9, equal in women and men, and significantly different from the exponent of 2.0 implicated in the body mass index, BMI [kg/m2].
Height of humansh [m]; H [mÂ·x-1]The height of humans, h, is given in SI units in meters [m]. Humans are countable objects, and the symbol and unit of the number of objects is N [x]. The average height of N objects is, H = h/N [m/x], where h is the heights of all N objects measured on top of each other. Therefore, the height per human has the unit [mÂ·x-1] (compare body mass [kgÂ·x-1]). Without further identifyer, H is considered as the standing height of a human, measured without shoes, hair ornaments and heavy outer garments.
Lengthl [m]Length l is an SI base quantity with SI base unit meter m. Quantities derived from length are area A [m2] and volume V [m3]. Length is an extensive quantity, increasing additively with the number of objects. The term 'height' h is used for length in cases of vertical position (see height of humans). Length of height per object, LUX [mÂ·x-1] is length per unit-entity UX, in contrast to lentgth of a system, which may contain one or many entities, such as the length of a pipeline assembled from a number NX of individual pipes. Length is a quantity linked to direct sensory, practical experience, as reflected in terms related to length: long/short (height: tall/small). Terms such as 'long/short distance' are then used by analogy in the context of the more abstract quantity time (long/short duration).
MitObesity drugsBioactive mitObesity compounds are drugs and nutraceuticals with more or less reproducible beneficial effects in the treatment of diverse preventable degenerative diseases implicated in comorbidities linked to obesity, characterized by common mechanisms of action targeting mitochondria.
ObesityObesity is a disease resulting from excessive accumulation of body fat. In common obesity (non-syndromic obesity) excessive body fat is due to an obesogenic lifestyle with lack of physical exercise ('couch') and caloric surplus of food consumption ('potato'), causing several comorbidities which are characterized as preventable non-communicable diseases. Persistent body fat excess associated with deficits of physical activity induces a weight-lifting effect on increasing muscle mass with decreasing mitochondrial capacity. Body fat excess, therefore, correlates with body mass excess up to a critical stage of obesogenic lifestyle-induced sarcopenia, when loss of muscle mass results in further deterioration of physical performance particularly at older age.
VO2maxVO2max; VO2max/MMaximum oxygen consumption, VO2max, is and index of cardiorespiratory fitness, measured by spiroergometry on human and animal organisms capable of controlled physical exercise performance on a treadmill or cycle ergometer. VO2max is the maximum respiration of an organism, expressed as the volume of O2 at STPD consumed per unit of time per individual object [mL.min-1.x-1]. If normalized per body mass of the individual object, M [kg.x-1], mass specific maximum oxygen consumption, VO2max/M, is expressed in units [mL.min-1.kg-1].

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