Cardinale 2019 Front Physiol

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Cardinale DA, Larsen FJ, Lännerström J, Manselin T, Södergård O, Mijwel S, Lindholm P, Ekblom B, Boushel R (2019) Influence of hyperoxic-supplemented high-intensity interval training on hemotological and muscle mitochondrial adaptations in trained cyclists. Front Physiol 10:730.

» PMID: 31258485

Cardinale DA, Larsen FJ, Laennerstroem J, Manselin T, Soedergaard O, Mijwel S, Lindholm P, Ekblom B, Boushel R (2019) Front Physiol

Abstract: Hyperoxia (HYPER) increases O2 carrying capacity resulting in a higher O2 delivery to the working muscles during exercise. Several lines of evidence indicate that lactate metabolism, power output, and endurance are improved by HYPER compared to normoxia (NORM). Since HYPER enables a higher exercise power output compared to NORM and considering the O2 delivery limitation at exercise intensities near to maximum, we hypothesized that hyperoxic-supplemented high-intensity interval training (HIIT) would upregulate muscle mitochondrial oxidative capacity and enhance endurance cycling performance compared to training in normoxia.

23 trained cyclists, age 35.3 ± 6.4 years, body mass 75.2 ± 9.6 kg, height 179.8 ± 7.9 m, and VO2max 4.5 ± 0.7 L min-1 performed 6 weeks polarized and periodized endurance training on a cycle ergometer consisting of supervised HIIT sessions 3 days/week and additional low-intensity training 2 days/week. Participants were randomly assigned to either HYPER (FIO2 0.30; n = 12) or NORM (FIO2 0.21; n = 11) breathing condition during HIIT. Mitochondrial respiration in permeabilized fibers and isolated mitochondria together with maximal and submaximal VO2, hematological parameters, and self-paced endurance cycling performance were tested pre- and posttraining intervention.

Hyperoxic training led to a small, non-significant change in performance compared to normoxic training (HYPER 6.0 ± 3.7%, NORM 2.4 ± 5.0%; p = 0.073, ES = 0.32). This small, beneficial effect on the self-paced endurance cycling performance was not explained by the change in VO2max (HYPER 1.1 ± 3.8%, NORM 0.0 ± 3.7%; p = 0.55, ES = 0.08), blood volume and hemoglobin mass, mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation capacity (permeabilized fibers: HYPER 27.3 ± 46.0%, NORM 16.5 ± 49.1%; p = 0.37, ES = 3.24 and in isolated mitochondria: HYPER 26.1 ± 80.1%, NORM 15.9 ± 73.3%; p = 0.66, ES = 0.51), or markers of mitochondrial content which were similar between groups post intervention.

This study showed that 6 weeks hyperoxic-supplemented HIIT led to marginal gain in cycle performance in already trained cyclists without change in VO2max, blood volume, hemoglobin mass, mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation capacity, or exercise efficiency. The underlying mechanisms for the potentially meaningful performance effects of hyperoxia training remain unexplained and may raise ethical questions for elite sport.

Keywords: OXPHOS, VO2max, Cycling performance, High-intensity interval training, Hyperoxia, Mitochondria Bioblast editor: Plangger M


Labels: MiParea: Respiration, Exercise physiology;nutrition;life style 


Organism: Human  Tissue;cell: Skeletal muscle  Preparation: Permeabilized tissue, Isolated mitochondria 


Coupling state: LEAK, OXPHOS, ET  Pathway: F, N, CIV, NS, ROX  HRR: Oxygraph-2k 

Labels, 2019-07, VO2max