Coenzyme Q

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Coenzyme Q


Coenzyme Q, redox system (oxidized ubiquinone, partially reduced semiquinone, fully reduced ubiquinol) of the Electron transfer pathway.

More details » Q-junction.

Abbreviation: Q, CoQ

Reference: Gnaiger 2019 MitoPathways

Application in HRR

Q2 : Coenzyme Q2 (Sigma Aldrich, C8081, MW: 318.41; 2,3-Dimethoxy-5-methyl-6-geranyl-1,4-benzoquinone, Ubiquinone-2, oxidized form)
Caution: Light sensitive (store solution in a dark glass vial).
Preparation of 10 mM stock solution (dissolved in ethanol) (to run cyclic voltammetry)
  1. Dissolve one commercial vial of Q2 (2 mg) Q2 in 628 µL 99.9% ethanol.
  2. Divide into 50 µL aliquots in dark glass vials.
  3. Store frozen at -20 °C.

Preparation of 1 mM stock solution (to measure the Q redox ratio)
  1. Dilute 50 µL of the 10 mM stock with 450 µL 99.9% ethanol.
  2. Divide into 50 µL aliquots in dark glass vials.
  3. Store frozen at -20 °C.

O2k manual titrations MiPNet09.12 O2k-Titrations
Q redox ratio
  • Titration volume: 2 µL of the 1 mM stock solution using a 10 µL syringe (2 mL O2k-Chamber).
  • Final concentration: 1 µM

Cyclic voltammetry
  • Titration volume: 6 µL of the 10 mM stock solution using a 10 µL syringe (2 mL O2k-Chamber).
  • Final concentration: 30 µM

CoQ and mitObesity

Work in progress by Gnaiger E 2020-02-10 linked to a preprint in preparation on BME and mitObesity.

MitoPedia: mitObesity drugs


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CurcuminCurcumin has been shown to possess significant anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, anti-carcinogenic, anti-mutagenic, anti-coagulant and anti-infective effects. The protective effects of curcumin on rat heart mitochondrial injuries induced by in vitro anoxia–reoxygenation were evaluated by Xu et al 2013. It was found that curcumin added before anoxia or immediately prior to reoxygenation exhibited remarkable protective effects against anoxia–reoxygenation induced oxidative damage to mitochondria.
ElamipretideBendaviaBendavia (Elamipretide) was developed as a mitochondria-targeted drug against degenerative diseases, including cardiac ischemia-reperfusion injury. Clinical trials showed variable results. It is a cationic tetrapeptide which readily passes cell membranes, associates with cardiolipin in the mitochondrial inner membrane. Supercomplex-associated CIV activity significantly improved in response to elamipretide treatment in the failing human heart.
FlavonoidsFlavonoids are a group of bioactive polyphenols with potential antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, abundant in fruits and vegetables, and in some medicinal herbs. Flavonoids are synthesized in plants from phenylalanine. Dietary intake of flavonoids as nutraceuticals is discussed for targeting T2D and other degenerative diseases.
MelatoninaMTMelatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine, aMT) is a highly conserved molecule present in unicellular to vertebrate organisms. Melatonin is synthesized from tryptophan in the pinealocytes by the pineal gland and also is produced in other organs, tissues and fluids (extrapineal melatonin). Melatonin has lipophilic and hydrophilic nature which allows it to cross biological membranes. Therefore, melatonin is present in all subcellular compartments predominantly in the nucleus and mitochondria. Melatonin has pleiotropic functions with powerful antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and oncostatic effects with a wide spectrum of action particularly at the level of mitochondria. » MiPNet article
MetforminMetformin is mainly known as an important antidiabetic drug which is effective, however, in a wide spectrum of degenerative diseases. It is an inhibitor of Complex I.
RapamycinRapamycin is an inhibitor of the mammalian/mechanistic target of rapamycin, complex 1 (mTORC1). Rapamycin induces autophagy and dyscouples mitochondrial respiration. Rapamycin delays senescence in human cells, and extends lifespan in mice without detrimental effects on mitochondrial fitness in skeletal muscle.
ResveratrolResveratrol is a natural bioactive phenol prouced by several plants with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. Dietary intake as nutraceutical is discussed for targeting mitochondria with a wide spectrum of action in degenerative diseases.
SpermidineSpermidine is a polycationic bioactive polyamine mainly found in wheat germ, soybean and various vegetables, involved in the regulation of mitophagy, cell growth and cell death. Like other caloric restriction mimetics, spermidine is effective in cardioprotection, neuroprotection and anticancer immunosuppression by preserving mitochondrial function and control of autophagy.
Healthy reference population     Body mass excess         BFE         BME cutoffs         BMI         H         M         VO2max         mitObesity drugs

Publications: Q

Szibor 2019 Biochim Biophys Acta Bioenerg2019Szibor Marten, Gainutdinov Timur, Fernandez-Vizarra Erika, Dufour Eric, Gizatullina Zemfira, Debska-Vielhaber Grazyna, Heidler Juliana, Wittig Ilka, Viscomi Carlo, Gellerich Frank Norbert, Moore Anthony L (2019) Bioenergetic consequences from xenotopic expression of a tunicate AOX in mouse mitochondria: switch from RET and ROS to FET. Biochim Biophys Acta Bioenerg 1861:148137.MouseHeart
Spinazzi 2019 Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A2019Spinazzi M, Radaelli E, Horré K, Arranz AM, Gounko NV, Agostinis P, Maia TM, Impens F, Morais VA, Lopez-Lluch G, Serneels L, Navas P, De Strooper B (2019) PARL deficiency in mouse causes Complex III defects, coenzyme Q depletion, and Leigh-like syndrome. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 116:277-86.MouseNervous systemNeurodegenerative
La Guardia 2013 Front Physiol2013La Guardia PG, Alberici LC, Ravagnani FG, Catharino RR, Vercesi AE (2013) Protection of rat skeletal muscle fibers by either L-carnitine or coenzyme Q10 against statins toxicity mediated by mitochondrial reactive oxygen generation. Front Physiol 4:103.RatSkeletal muscleOxidative stress;RONS

Abstracts: Q
Ravasz 2019 Abstract IOC1412019Ravasz D, Bui D, Kitayev A, Greenwood B, Hill C, Komlodi T, Doerrier C, Ozohanics O, Moore AL, Gnaiger E, Kiebish M, Kolev K, Seyfried TN, Willis WT, Narain N, Adam-Vizi V, Chinopoulos C (2019) Endogenous quinones sustain a moderate NADH oxidation by Complex I during anoxia. Mitochondr Physiol Network 24.02.MouseLiver
Komlodi 2018b EBEC20182018Endogenous quinones sustain NADH oxidation by Complex I during anoxia, supporting substrate-level phosphorylation in mouse liver mitochondria.MouseLiverPermeability transition
Oxidative stress;RONS
Ravasz 2018 Abstract The evolving concept of mitochondria2018Vast pools of endogenous quinones sustain NADH oxidation by Complex I during anoxia, supporting substrate-level phosphorylation in mouse liver mitochondria.MouseLiverOther
Komlodi 2018 AussieMit2018Komlodi T, Hunger M, Moore AL, Gnaiger E (2018) Electron transfer at the Q-junction: new perspectives from combined measurement of mitochondrial O2 flux, H2O2 flux, and coenzyme Q redox state. AussieMit 2018 Melbourne AU.MouseNervous system
Komlodi 2018 EBEC20182018Electron supply to the Q-junction: assessment of mitochondrial respiration, H2O2 flux and the redox state of the Q-pool.MouseNervous systemOxidative stress;RONS
Moore 2017 MiPschool Obergurgl2017
Anthony Moore
The electron transfer-pathway – Q redox regulation and mitochondrial pathways to oxygen.