Glutamate anaplerotic pathway control state

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Bioblasts - Richard Altmann and MiPArt by Odra Noel
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MitoPedia

Glutamate anaplerotic pathway control state

Description

G
G: Glutamate is an anaplerotic NADH-linked type 4 substrate (N). When supplied as the sole fuel substrate in the glutamate pathway control state, G is transported by the electroneutral glutamate-/OH- exchanger, and is oxidised via mt-glutamate dehydrogenase in the mitochondrial matrix. The G-pathway plays an important role in glutaminolysis.

Abbreviation: G

Reference: Gnaiger 2014 MitoPathways - Chapter 3.3


MitoPedia concepts: SUIT state 

Communicated by Gnaiger E 2016-01-25, edited 2016-11-29.


G(L)

LEAK state (L) with G alone as substrate can be evaluated in the following SUIT protocol:


G(P)

OXPHOS state (P) with G alone as substrate can be evaluated in the following SUIT protocol:

G(E)

ET state (E) with G alone as substrate can be evaluated in the following SUIT protocol:


Details

In human skeletal muscle mitochondria, OXPHOS capacity with glutamate alone (GP) is 50% to 85% of respiration in the GM pathway control state (GMP). Accumulation of fumarate inhibits succinate dehydrogenase and glutamate dehydrogenase.
Glutaminolysis: Glutamate derived from hydrolyzation of glutamine is an important aerobic substrate in cultured cells, supporting anaplerosis. Mitochondrial glutamate dehydrogenase is particularly active in astrocytes, preventing glutamate-induced neurotoxicity.
Anaplerosis from malate: mtNAD-malic enzyme supports an anaplerotic pathway when carbohydrate is limiting.

SUITbrowser question: Glutamine/glutamate

The SUITbrowser can be used to find the best SUIT protocols to analyse glutamine/glutamate metabolism, among other research questions.