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Bioblasts - Richard Altmann and MiPArt by Odra Noel
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Glutamic acid

Glutamic acid, C5H9NO4, is an amino acid which occurs under physiological conditions mainly as the anion glutamate-, G, with pKa1 = 2.1, pKa2 = 4.07 and pKa3 = 9.47. Glutamate&malate is a substrate combination supporting an N-linked pathway control state, when glutamate is transported into the mt-matrix via the glutamate-aspartate carrier and reacts with oxaloacetate in the transaminase reaction to form aspartate and oxoglutarate. Glutamate as the sole substrate is transported by the electroneutral glutamate-/OH- exchanger, and is oxidized in the mitochondrial matrix by glutamate dehydrogenase to α-ketoglutarate ( 2-oxoglutarate), representing the glutamate anaplerotic pathway control state. Ammonia (the byproduct of the reaction) passes freely through the mitochondrial membrane.

Abbreviation: G

Reference: Gnaiger 2014 MitoPathways

MitoPedia topics: Substrate and metabolite 


Application in HRR

G: Glutamate (L-Glutamic acid, monosodium salt hydrate, C5H8NO4Na; contains 1 mol H2O /mol); Sigma G 1626, 100 g, store at R.T.; FW = 169.1)
Preparation of 2 M stock solution (dissolved in H2O)
  1. Weigh 1.691 g L-Glutamic acid, monosodium salt hydrate, and transfer to a 5 mL volumetric glass flask.
  2. Add 3 mL H2O.
  3. Adjust pH with 5 M KOH to pH 7.0.
  4. Adjust final volume to 5 mL and divide into 0.5 mL portions.
  5. Store at -20 °C.

» MitoPedia: SUIT
» Glutamate anaplerotic pathway control state

» O2k manual titrations MiPNet09.12 O2k-Titrations
  • Titration volume: 10 µL using a 25 µl syringe (2 mL O2k-Chamber).
  • Final concentration: 10 mM.