Hidalgo-Gutierrez 2021 Antioxidants (Basel)

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Hidalgo-GutiΓ©rrez A, GonzΓ‘lez-GarcΓ­a P, DΓ­az-Casado ME, Barriocanal-Casado E, LΓ³pez-Herrador S, Quinzii CM, LΓ³pez LC (2021) Metabolic targets of coenzyme Q10 in mitochondria. Antioxidants (Basel) 10:520. https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10040520

Β» PMID: 33810539 Open Access

Hidalgo-Gutierrez A, Gonzalez-Garcia P, Diaz-Casado ME, Barriocanal-Casado E, Lopez-Herrador S, Quinzii CM, Lopez LC (2021) Antioxidants (Basel)

Abstract: Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is classically viewed as an important endogenous antioxidant and key component of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. For this second function, CoQ molecules seem to be dynamically segmented in a pool attached and engulfed by the super-complexes I + III, and a free pool available for complex II or any other mitochondrial enzyme that uses CoQ as a cofactor. This CoQ-free pool is, therefore, used by enzymes that link the mitochondrial respiratory chain to other pathways, such as the pyrimidine de novo biosynthesis, fatty acid Ξ²-oxidation and amino acid catabolism, glycine metabolism, proline, glyoxylate and arginine metabolism, and sulfide oxidation metabolism. Some of these mitochondrial pathways are also connected to metabolic pathways in other compartments of the cell and, consequently, CoQ could indirectly modulate metabolic pathways located outside the mitochondria. Thus, we review the most relevant findings in all these metabolic functions of CoQ and their relations with the pathomechanisms of some metabolic diseases, highlighting some future perspectives and potential therapeutic implications.

β€’ Bioblast editor: Gnaiger E

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Correction: FADH2 and Complex II

Ambiguity alert.png
FADH2 is shown as the substrate feeding electrons into Complex II (CII). This is wrong and requires correction - for details see Gnaiger (2024).
Gnaiger E (2024) Complex II ambiguities ― FADH2 in the electron transfer system. J Biol Chem 300:105470. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbc.2023.105470 - Β»Bioblast linkΒ«

Hydrogen ion ambiguities in the electron transfer system

Communicated by Gnaiger E (2023-10-08) last update 2023-11-10
Electron (e-) transfer linked to hydrogen ion (hydron; H+) transfer is a fundamental concept in the field of bioenergetics, critical for understanding redox-coupled energy transformations.
Ambiguity alert H+.png
However, the current literature contains inconsistencies regarding H+ formation on the negative side of bioenergetic membranes, such as the matrix side of the mitochondrial inner membrane, when NADH is oxidized during oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). Ambiguities arise when examining the oxidation of NADH by respiratory Complex I or succinate by Complex II.
Ambiguity alert e-.png
Oxidation of NADH or succinate involves a two-electron transfer of 2{H++e-} to FMN or FAD, respectively. Figures indicating a single electron e- transferred from NADH or succinate lack accuracy.
Ambiguity alert NAD.png
The oxidized NAD+ is distinguished from NAD indicating nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide independent of oxidation state.
NADH + H+ β†’ NAD+ +2{H++e-} is the oxidation half-reaction in this H+-linked electron transfer represented as 2{H++e-} (Gnaiger 2023). Putative H+ formation shown as NADH β†’ NAD+ + H+ conflicts with chemiosmotic coupling stoichiometries between H+ translocation across the coupling membrane and electron transfer to oxygen. Ensuring clarity in this complex field is imperative to tackle the apparent ambiguity crisis and prevent confusion, particularly in light of the increasing number of interdisciplinary publications on bioenergetics concerning diagnostic and clinical applications of OXPHOS analysis.


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Enzyme: Complex II;succinate dehydrogenase 




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