Cojocaru 2023 Antioxidants (Basel)

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Cojocaru KA, Luchian I, Goriuc A, Antoci LM, Ciobanu CG, Popescu R, Vlad CE, Blaj M, Foia LG (2023) Mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, and therapeutic strategies in diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular disease. Antioxidants (Basel) 12:658.

Β» PMID: 36978905 Open Access

Cojocaru KA, Luchian I, Goriuc A, Antoci LM, Ciobanu CG, Popescu R, Vlad CE, Blaj M, Foia LG (2023) Antioxidants (Basel)

Abstract: Mitochondria are subcellular organelles involved in essential cellular functions, including cytosolic calcium regulation, cell apoptosis, and reactive oxygen species production. They are the site of important biochemical pathways, including the tricarboxylic acid cycle, parts of the ureagenesis cycle, or haem synthesis. Mitochondria are responsible for the majority of cellular ATP production through OXPHOS. Mitochondrial dysfunction has been associated with metabolic pathologies such as diabetes, obesity, hypertension, neurodegenerative diseases, cellular aging, and cancer. In this article, we describe the pathophysiological changes in, and mitochondrial role of, metabolic disorders (diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular disease) and their correlation with oxidative stress. We highlight the genetic changes identified at the mtDNA level. Additionally, we selected several representative biomarkers involved in oxidative stress and summarize the progress of therapeutic strategies.

Cojocaru 2023 Antioxidants (Basel) CORRECTION.png

Correction: FADH2 and Complex II

Ambiguity alert.png
FADH2 is shown as the substrate feeding electrons into Complex II (CII). This is wrong and requires correction - for details see Gnaiger (2024).
Gnaiger E (2024) Complex II ambiguities ― FADH2 in the electron transfer system. J Biol Chem 300:105470. - Β»Bioblast linkΒ«

Hydrogen ion ambiguities in the electron transfer system

Communicated by Gnaiger E (2023-10-08) last update 2023-11-10
Electron (e-) transfer linked to hydrogen ion (hydron; H+) transfer is a fundamental concept in the field of bioenergetics, critical for understanding redox-coupled energy transformations.
Ambiguity alert H+.png
However, the current literature contains inconsistencies regarding H+ formation on the negative side of bioenergetic membranes, such as the matrix side of the mitochondrial inner membrane, when NADH is oxidized during oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). Ambiguities arise when examining the oxidation of NADH by respiratory Complex I or succinate by Complex II.
Ambiguity alert e-.png
Oxidation of NADH or succinate involves a two-electron transfer of 2{H++e-} to FMN or FAD, respectively. Figures indicating a single electron e- transferred from NADH or succinate lack accuracy.
Ambiguity alert NAD.png
The oxidized NAD+ is distinguished from NAD indicating nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide independent of oxidation state.
NADH + H+ β†’ NAD+ +2{H++e-} is the oxidation half-reaction in this H+-linked electron transfer represented as 2{H++e-} (Gnaiger 2023). Putative H+ formation shown as NADH β†’ NAD+ + H+ conflicts with chemiosmotic coupling stoichiometries between H+ translocation across the coupling membrane and electron transfer to oxygen. Ensuring clarity in this complex field is imperative to tackle the apparent ambiguity crisis and prevent confusion, particularly in light of the increasing number of interdisciplinary publications on bioenergetics concerning diagnostic and clinical applications of OXPHOS analysis.

Labels: Pathology: Cardiovascular, Diabetes, Obesity  Stress:Oxidative stress;RONS 

Enzyme: Complex II;succinate dehydrogenase 

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