Zhao 2021 Mol Biomed

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Publications in the MiPMap
Zhao H, Li Y (2021) Cancer metabolism and intervention therapy. Mol Biomed 2:5. https://doi.org/10.1186/s43556-020-00012-1

Β» PMID: 35006438 Open Access

Zhao H, Li Y (2021) Mol Biomed

Abstract: Metabolic reprogramming with heterogeneity is a hallmark of cancer and is at the basis of malignant behaviors. It supports the proliferation and metastasis of tumor cells according to the low nutrition and hypoxic microenvironment. Tumor cells frantically grab energy sources (such as glucose, fatty acids, and glutamine) from different pathways to produce a variety of biomass to meet their material needs via enhanced synthetic pathways, including aerobic glycolysis, glutaminolysis, fatty acid synthesis (FAS), and pentose phosphate pathway (PPP). To survive from stress conditions (e.g., metastasis, irradiation, or chemotherapy), tumor cells have to reprogram their metabolism from biomass production towards the generation of abundant adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and antioxidants. In addition, cancer cells remodel the microenvironment through metabolites, promoting an immunosuppressive microenvironment. Herein, we discuss how the metabolism is reprogrammed in cancer cells and how the tumor microenvironment is educated via the metabolic products. We also highlight potential metabolic targets for cancer therapies.

β€’ Bioblast editor: Gnaiger E

Zhao 2021 Mol Biomed CORRECTION.png

Correction: FADH2 and Complex II

Ambiguity alert.png
FADH2 is shown as the substrate feeding electrons into Complex II (CII). This is wrong and requires correction - for details see Gnaiger (2024).
Gnaiger E (2024) Complex II ambiguities ― FADH2 in the electron transfer system. J Biol Chem 300:105470. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbc.2023.105470 - Β»Bioblast linkΒ«

Hydrogen ion ambiguities in the electron transfer system

Communicated by Gnaiger E (2023-10-08) last update 2023-11-10
Electron (e-) transfer linked to hydrogen ion (hydron; H+) transfer is a fundamental concept in the field of bioenergetics, critical for understanding redox-coupled energy transformations.
Ambiguity alert H+.png
However, the current literature contains inconsistencies regarding H+ formation on the negative side of bioenergetic membranes, such as the matrix side of the mitochondrial inner membrane, when NADH is oxidized during oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). Ambiguities arise when examining the oxidation of NADH by respiratory Complex I or succinate by Complex II.
Ambiguity alert e-.png
Oxidation of NADH or succinate involves a two-electron transfer of 2{H++e-} to FMN or FAD, respectively. Figures indicating a single electron e- transferred from NADH or succinate lack accuracy.
Ambiguity alert NAD.png
The oxidized NAD+ is distinguished from NAD indicating nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide independent of oxidation state.
NADH + H+ β†’ NAD+ +2{H++e-} is the oxidation half-reaction in this H+-linked electron transfer represented as 2{H++e-} (Gnaiger 2023). Putative H+ formation shown as NADH β†’ NAD+ + H+ conflicts with chemiosmotic coupling stoichiometries between H+ translocation across the coupling membrane and electron transfer to oxygen. Ensuring clarity in this complex field is imperative to tackle the apparent ambiguity crisis and prevent confusion, particularly in light of the increasing number of interdisciplinary publications on bioenergetics concerning diagnostic and clinical applications of OXPHOS analysis.
Fig. 1 of Zhao et al (2021): NADP is shown as (1) a product of the TCA cycle and (2) substrate of the reaction catalyzed by CI.


Labels: Pathology: Cancer 



Enzyme: Complex II;succinate dehydrogenase 




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