Warburg effect

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Warburg effect


Requires definition

Reference: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Warburg_effect

MitoPedia methods: Respirometry 

Oxygen and pH - Warburg versus Crabtree Effect

Q: For quantification of aerobic glycolysis in intact cells, the measurement of proton production can be used as an indirect but continuous record of lactate production and corresponding acidification of the medium, while simultaneously monitoring oxygen concentration and oxygen consumption (MultiSensor-O2k). Is this related to the Warburg or Crabtree effect?
A: Under various metabolic conditions, lactic acid production is the dominant mechanism causing acidification, hence the pH measurement is a good indirect indicator of aerobic glycolysis. An early paper summarizing the literature in this field states:
"At high fructose concen­trations, respiration is inhibited while glycolytic end products accumulate, a phenomenon known as the Crabtree effect. It is commonly believed that this effect is restric­ted to microbial and tumour cells with uniquely high glycolytic capaci­ties (Sussman et al, 1980). How­ever, inhibition of respiration and increase of lactate production are observed under aerobic condi­tions in beating rat heart cell cultures (Frelin et al, 1974) and in isolated rat lung cells (Ayuso-Parrilla et al, 1978). Thus, the same general mechanisms respon­sible for the integra­tion of respiration and glycolysis in tumour cells (Sussman et al, 1980) appear to be operating to some extent in several isolated mammalian cells." Gnaiger 1990 Biochim Biophys Acta

From the literature

Warburg effect: "elevation of aerobic glycolysis seen in tumor cells"; "elevated lactate production under aerobic conditions".
  • Ferreira LM (2010) Cancer metabolism: the Warburg effect today. Exp Mol Pathol 89:372-80. [PMID: 20804748]
  • Kim JW, Dang CV (2006) Cancer’s molecular sweet tooth and the Warburg effect. Cancer Res 66:8927-30.
  • Liberti MV, Locasale JW (2016) The Warburg effect: how does it benefit cancer cells? Trends Biochem Sci 41:211–8. [PubMed: 26778478]
  • Van der Heiden MG, Cantley LC, Thompson CB (2009) Understanding the Warburg effect: the metabolic requirements of cell proliferation. Science 324:1029-33.
  • Warburg O (1956) On the origin of cancer cells. Science 123:309–14.
  • Warburg O (1956) On respiratory impairment in cancer cells. Science 124:269-70.