Vartak 2013 Protein Cell

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Vartak R, Porras CA, Bai Y (2013) Respiratory supercomplexes: structure, function and assembly. Protein Cell 4:582-90. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13238-013-3032-y

Β» PMID: 23828195 Open Access

Vartak R, Porras CA, Bai Y (2013) Protein Cell

Abstract: The mitochondrial respiratory chain consists of 5 enzyme complexes that are responsible for ATP generation. The paradigm of the electron transport chain as discrete enzymes diffused in the inner mitochondrial membrane has been replaced by the solid state supercomplex model wherein the respiratory complexes associate with each other to form supramolecular complexes. Defects in these supercomplexes, which have been shown to be functionally active and required for forming stable respiratory complexes, have been associated with many genetic and neurodegenerative disorders demonstrating their biomedical significance. In this review, we will summarize the functional and structural significance of supercomplexes and provide a comprehensive review of their assembly and the assembly factors currently known to play a role in this process.

β€’ Bioblast editor: Gnaiger E

Vartak 2013 Protein Cell CORRECTION.png

Correction: FADH2 and Complex II

Ambiguity alert.png
FADH2 is shown as the substrate feeding electrons into Complex II (CII). This is wrong and requires correction - for details see Gnaiger (2024).
Gnaiger E (2024) Complex II ambiguities ― FADH2 in the electron transfer system. J Biol Chem 300:105470. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbc.2023.105470 - Β»Bioblast linkΒ«
Fig. 1 of Vartak et al (2013): The misconstrued charge on FAD in FADH2 β†’ FAD+ may explain the explicit one-electron (1e) transfer shown for the 2-electron transfer from FADH2.

Hydrogen ion ambiguities in the electron transfer system

Communicated by Gnaiger E (2023-10-08) last update 2023-11-10
Electron (e-) transfer linked to hydrogen ion (hydron; H+) transfer is a fundamental concept in the field of bioenergetics, critical for understanding redox-coupled energy transformations.
Ambiguity alert H+.png
However, the current literature contains inconsistencies regarding H+ formation on the negative side of bioenergetic membranes, such as the matrix side of the mitochondrial inner membrane, when NADH is oxidized during oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). Ambiguities arise when examining the oxidation of NADH by respiratory Complex I or succinate by Complex II.
Ambiguity alert e-.png
Oxidation of NADH or succinate involves a two-electron transfer of 2{H++e-} to FMN or FAD, respectively. Figures indicating a single electron e- transferred from NADH or succinate lack accuracy.
Ambiguity alert NAD.png
The oxidized NAD+ is distinguished from NAD indicating nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide independent of oxidation state.
NADH + H+ β†’ NAD+ +2{H++e-} is the oxidation half-reaction in this H+-linked electron transfer represented as 2{H++e-} (Gnaiger 2023). Putative H+ formation shown as NADH β†’ NAD+ + H+ conflicts with chemiosmotic coupling stoichiometries between H+ translocation across the coupling membrane and electron transfer to oxygen. Ensuring clarity in this complex field is imperative to tackle the apparent ambiguity crisis and prevent confusion, particularly in light of the increasing number of interdisciplinary publications on bioenergetics concerning diagnostic and clinical applications of OXPHOS analysis.
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