Valle-Mendiola 2020 Cancers (Basel)

From Bioblast
Publications in the MiPMap
Valle-Mendiola A, Soto-Cruz I (2020) Energy metabolism in cancer: The roles of STAT3 and STAT5 in the regulation of metabolism-related genes. Cancers (Basel) 12:124.

Β» PMID: 31947710 Open Access

Valle-Mendiola A, Soto-Cruz I (2020) Cancers (Basel)

Abstract: A central characteristic of many types of cancer is altered energy metabolism processes such as enhanced glucose uptake and glycolysis and decreased oxidative metabolism. The regulation of energy metabolism is an elaborate process involving regulatory proteins such as HIF (pro-metastatic protein), which reduces oxidative metabolism, and some other proteins such as tumour suppressors that promote oxidative phosphorylation. In recent years, it has been demonstrated that signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) proteins play a pivotal role in metabolism regulation. STAT3 and STAT5 are essential regulators of cytokine- or growth factor-induced cell survival and proliferation, as well as the crosstalk between STAT signalling and oxidative metabolism. Several reports suggest that the constitutive activation of STAT proteins promotes glycolysis through the transcriptional activation of hypoxia-inducible factors and therefore, the alteration of mitochondrial activity. It seems that STAT proteins function as an integrative centre for different growth and survival signals for energy and respiratory metabolism. This review summarises the functions of STAT3 and STAT5 in the regulation of some metabolism-related genes and the importance of oxygen in the tumour microenvironment to regulate cell metabolism, particularly in the metabolic pathways that are involved in energy production in cancer cells.

β€’ Bioblast editor: Gnaiger E

Valle-Mendiola 2020 Cancers (Basel) CORRECTION.png

Correction: FADH2 and Complex II

Ambiguity alert.png
FADH2 is shown as the substrate feeding electrons into Complex II (CII). This is wrong and requires correction - for details see Gnaiger (2024).
Gnaiger E (2024) Complex II ambiguities ― FADH2 in the electron transfer system. J Biol Chem 300:105470. - Β»Bioblast linkΒ«

Hydrogen ion ambiguities in the electron transfer system

Communicated by Gnaiger E (2023-10-08) last update 2023-11-10
Electron (e-) transfer linked to hydrogen ion (hydron; H+) transfer is a fundamental concept in the field of bioenergetics, critical for understanding redox-coupled energy transformations.
Ambiguity alert H+.png
However, the current literature contains inconsistencies regarding H+ formation on the negative side of bioenergetic membranes, such as the matrix side of the mitochondrial inner membrane, when NADH is oxidized during oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). Ambiguities arise when examining the oxidation of NADH by respiratory Complex I or succinate by Complex II.
Ambiguity alert e-.png
Oxidation of NADH or succinate involves a two-electron transfer of 2{H++e-} to FMN or FAD, respectively. Figures indicating a single electron e- transferred from NADH or succinate lack accuracy.
Ambiguity alert NAD.png
The oxidized NAD+ is distinguished from NAD indicating nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide independent of oxidation state.
NADH + H+ β†’ NAD+ +2{H++e-} is the oxidation half-reaction in this H+-linked electron transfer represented as 2{H++e-} (Gnaiger 2023). Putative H+ formation shown as NADH β†’ NAD+ + H+ conflicts with chemiosmotic coupling stoichiometries between H+ translocation across the coupling membrane and electron transfer to oxygen. Ensuring clarity in this complex field is imperative to tackle the apparent ambiguity crisis and prevent confusion, particularly in light of the increasing number of interdisciplinary publications on bioenergetics concerning diagnostic and clinical applications of OXPHOS analysis.


Enzyme: Complex II;succinate dehydrogenase 

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