Tirichen 2021 Front Physiol

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Tirichen H, Yaigoub H, Xu W, Wu C, Li R, Li Y (2021) Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species and their contribution in chronic kidney disease progression through oxidative stress. Front Physiol 12:627837. https://doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2021.627837

Β» PMID: 33967820 Open Access

Tirichen H, Yaigoub H, Xu W, Wu C, Li R, Li Y (2021) Front Physiol

Abstract: Mitochondria are known to generate approximately 90% of cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). The imbalance between mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mtROS) production and removal due to overproduction of ROS and/or decreased antioxidants defense activity results in oxidative stress (OS), which leads to oxidative damage that affects several cellular components such as lipids, DNA, and proteins. Since the kidney is a highly energetic organ, it is more vulnerable to damage caused by OS and thus its contribution to the development and progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). This article aims to review the contribution of mtROS and OS to CKD progression and kidney function deterioration.

β€’ Bioblast editor: Gnaiger E

Tirichen 2021 Front Physiol CORRECTION.png

Correction: FADH2 and Complex II

Ambiguity alert.png
FADH2 is shown as the substrate feeding electrons into Complex II (CII). This is wrong and requires correction - for details see Gnaiger (2024).
Gnaiger E (2024) Complex II ambiguities ― FADH2 in the electron transfer system. J Biol Chem 300:105470. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbc.2023.105470 - Β»Bioblast linkΒ«

Hydrogen ion ambiguities in the electron transfer system

Communicated by Gnaiger E (2023-10-08) last update 2023-11-10
Electron (e-) transfer linked to hydrogen ion (hydron; H+) transfer is a fundamental concept in the field of bioenergetics, critical for understanding redox-coupled energy transformations.
Ambiguity alert H+.png
However, the current literature contains inconsistencies regarding H+ formation on the negative side of bioenergetic membranes, such as the matrix side of the mitochondrial inner membrane, when NADH is oxidized during oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). Ambiguities arise when examining the oxidation of NADH by respiratory Complex I or succinate by Complex II.
Ambiguity alert e-.png
Oxidation of NADH or succinate involves a two-electron transfer of 2{H++e-} to FMN or FAD, respectively. Figures indicating a single electron e- transferred from NADH or succinate lack accuracy.
Ambiguity alert NAD.png
The oxidized NAD+ is distinguished from NAD indicating nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide independent of oxidation state.
NADH + H+ β†’ NAD+ +2{H++e-} is the oxidation half-reaction in this H+-linked electron transfer represented as 2{H++e-} (Gnaiger 2023). Putative H+ formation shown as NADH β†’ NAD+ + H+ conflicts with chemiosmotic coupling stoichiometries between H+ translocation across the coupling membrane and electron transfer to oxygen. Ensuring clarity in this complex field is imperative to tackle the apparent ambiguity crisis and prevent confusion, particularly in light of the increasing number of interdisciplinary publications on bioenergetics concerning diagnostic and clinical applications of OXPHOS analysis.
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