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Carboxyatractyloside has been accessed more than
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Sources of CAT

Gnaiger E

When we used atractyloside (Atr), carboxyatractyloside CAT was off the market, hence we had no other choice. CAT is available again. Even if it costs more, it is worth more, and with CAT available, I would not bother to find out more about Atr.

Chinopoulos C

I have used the Sigma CAT as well, but not for titration studies. It works perfectly at 1-2 ยตM concentrations, if you want to block completely all ANTs. The MW is 770.8.
The Sigma CAT originates from Atr extracted from Xanthicum sibericum. A carboxylation is a further chemical modification. The Merck CAT originates from Atr from Atractylis gummifera, which is identical to that from Xanthicum. A carboxylation is a further chemical modification. Because of this modification which is man-made, there may be different potencies. For titration studies (0-200 nM CAT), the one from Merck (Atractylis gummifera) is strongly recommended. - Christos (2012-04-19)


Unfortunately Merck does not sell the CAT from Atractylis gummifera anymore and currently only offers the CAT extracted from Xanthicum sibericum (as does Sigma). - Michael (2012-04-20)

Review on ANT and mitochondrial permeability transition pore

Halestrap AP, Brenner C. The adenine nucleotide translocase: a central component of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore and key player in cell death. Curr Med Chem. 2003 Aug;10(16):1507-25. doi: 10.2174/0929867033457278. PMID: 12871123.