Smith 2023 Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol

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Smith JAB, Murach KA, Dyar KA, Zierath JR (2023) Exercise metabolism and adaptation in skeletal muscle. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 24:607-32. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41580-023-00606-x

Β» PMID: 37225892

Smith JAB, Murach KA, Dyar KA, Zierath JR (2023) Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol

Abstract: Viewing metabolism through the lens of exercise biology has proven an accessible and practical strategy to gain new insights into local and systemic metabolic regulation. Recent methodological developments have advanced understanding of the central role of skeletal muscle in many exercise-associated health benefits and have uncovered the molecular underpinnings driving adaptive responses to training regimens. In this Review, we provide a contemporary view of the metabolic flexibility and functional plasticity of skeletal muscle in response to exercise. First, we provide background on the macrostructure and ultrastructure of skeletal muscle fibres, highlighting the current understanding of sarcomeric networks and mitochondrial subpopulations. Next, we discuss acute exercise skeletal muscle metabolism and the signalling, transcriptional and epigenetic regulation of adaptations to exercise training. We address knowledge gaps throughout and propose future directions for the field. This Review contextualizes recent research of skeletal muscle exercise metabolism, framing further advances and translation into practice.

β€’ Bioblast editor: Gnaiger E

Smith 2023 Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol CORRECTION.png

Correction: FADH2 and Complex II

Ambiguity alert.png
FADH2 is shown as the substrate feeding electrons into Complex II (CII). This is wrong and requires correction - for details see Gnaiger (2024).
Gnaiger E (2024) Complex II ambiguities ― FADH2 in the electron transfer system. J Biol Chem 300:105470. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbc.2023.105470 - Β»Bioblast linkΒ«

Hydrogen ion ambiguities in the electron transfer system

Communicated by Gnaiger E (2023-10-08) last update 2023-11-10
Electron (e-) transfer linked to hydrogen ion (hydron; H+) transfer is a fundamental concept in the field of bioenergetics, critical for understanding redox-coupled energy transformations.
Ambiguity alert H+.png
However, the current literature contains inconsistencies regarding H+ formation on the negative side of bioenergetic membranes, such as the matrix side of the mitochondrial inner membrane, when NADH is oxidized during oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). Ambiguities arise when examining the oxidation of NADH by respiratory Complex I or succinate by Complex II.
Ambiguity alert e-.png
Oxidation of NADH or succinate involves a two-electron transfer of 2{H++e-} to FMN or FAD, respectively. Figures indicating a single electron e- transferred from NADH or succinate lack accuracy.
Ambiguity alert NAD.png
The oxidized NAD+ is distinguished from NAD indicating nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide independent of oxidation state.
NADH + H+ β†’ NAD+ +2{H++e-} is the oxidation half-reaction in this H+-linked electron transfer represented as 2{H++e-} (Gnaiger 2023). Putative H+ formation shown as NADH β†’ NAD+ + H+ conflicts with chemiosmotic coupling stoichiometries between H+ translocation across the coupling membrane and electron transfer to oxygen. Ensuring clarity in this complex field is imperative to tackle the apparent ambiguity crisis and prevent confusion, particularly in light of the increasing number of interdisciplinary publications on bioenergetics concerning diagnostic and clinical applications of OXPHOS analysis.

Labels: MiParea: Exercise physiology;nutrition;life style 



Enzyme: Complex II;succinate dehydrogenase 




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