Middleton 2021 Therap Adv Gastroenterol

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Middleton P, Vergis N (2021) Mitochondrial dysfunction and liver disease: role, relevance, and potential for therapeutic modulation. Therap Adv Gastroenterol 14:17562848211031394. https://doi.org/10.1177/17562848211031394

Β» PMID: 34377148 Open Access

Middleton P, Vergis N (2021) Therap Adv Gastroenterol

Abstract: Mitochondria are key organelles involved in energy production as well as numerous metabolic processes. There is a growing interest in the role of mitochondrial dysfunction in the pathogenesis of common chronic diseases as well as in cancer development. This review will examine the role mitochondria play in the pathophysiology of common liver diseases, including alcohol-related liver disease, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, chronic hepatitis B and hepatocellular carcinoma. Mitochondrial dysfunction is described widely in the literature in studies examining patient tissue and in disease models. Despite significant differences in pathophysiology between chronic liver diseases, common mitochondrial defects are described, including increased mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production and impaired oxidative phosphorylation. We review the current literature on mitochondrial-targeted therapies, which have the potential to open new therapeutic avenues in the management of patients with chronic liver disease.

β€’ Bioblast editor: Gnaiger E

Middleton 2021 Therap Adv CORRECTION.png

Correction: FADH2 and Complex II

Ambiguity alert.png
FADH2 is shown as the substrate feeding electrons into Complex II (CII). This is wrong and requires correction - for details see Gnaiger (2024).
Gnaiger E (2024) Complex II ambiguities ― FADH2 in the electron transfer system. J Biol Chem 300:105470. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbc.2023.105470 - Β»Bioblast linkΒ«

Hydrogen ion ambiguities in the electron transfer system

Communicated by Gnaiger E (2023-10-08) last update 2023-11-10
Electron (e-) transfer linked to hydrogen ion (hydron; H+) transfer is a fundamental concept in the field of bioenergetics, critical for understanding redox-coupled energy transformations.
Ambiguity alert H+.png
However, the current literature contains inconsistencies regarding H+ formation on the negative side of bioenergetic membranes, such as the matrix side of the mitochondrial inner membrane, when NADH is oxidized during oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). Ambiguities arise when examining the oxidation of NADH by respiratory Complex I or succinate by Complex II.
Ambiguity alert e-.png
Oxidation of NADH or succinate involves a two-electron transfer of 2{H++e-} to FMN or FAD, respectively. Figures indicating a single electron e- transferred from NADH or succinate lack accuracy.
Ambiguity alert NAD.png
The oxidized NAD+ is distinguished from NAD indicating nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide independent of oxidation state.
NADH + H+ β†’ NAD+ +2{H++e-} is the oxidation half-reaction in this H+-linked electron transfer represented as 2{H++e-} (Gnaiger 2023). Putative H+ formation shown as NADH β†’ NAD+ + H+ conflicts with chemiosmotic coupling stoichiometries between H+ translocation across the coupling membrane and electron transfer to oxygen. Ensuring clarity in this complex field is imperative to tackle the apparent ambiguity crisis and prevent confusion, particularly in light of the increasing number of interdisciplinary publications on bioenergetics concerning diagnostic and clinical applications of OXPHOS analysis.


Enzyme: Complex II;succinate dehydrogenase 

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