Liguori 2020 Photosynth Res

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Liguori N, Croce R, Marrink SJ, Thallmair S (2020) Molecular dynamics simulations in photosynthesis. Photosynth Res 144:273-95.

Β» PMID: 32297102 Open Access

Liguori N, Croce R, Marrink SJ, Thallmair S (2020) Photosynth Res

Abstract: Photosynthesis is regulated by a dynamic interplay between proteins, enzymes, pigments, lipids, and cofactors that takes place on a large spatio-temporal scale. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations provide a powerful toolkit to investigate dynamical processes in (bio)molecular ensembles from the (sub)picosecond to the (sub)millisecond regime and from the Γ… to hundreds of nm length scale. Therefore, MD is well suited to address a variety of questions arising in the field of photosynthesis research. In this review, we provide an introduction to the basic concepts of MD simulations, at atomistic and coarse-grained level of resolution. Furthermore, we discuss applications of MD simulations to model photosynthetic systems of different sizes and complexity and their connection to experimental observables. Finally, we provide a brief glance on which methods provide opportunities to capture phenomena beyond the applicability of classical MD.

β€’ Bioblast editor: Gnaiger E

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Hydrogen ion ambiguities in the electron transfer system

Communicated by Gnaiger E (2023-10-08) last update 2023-11-10
Electron (e-) transfer linked to hydrogen ion (hydron; H+) transfer is a fundamental concept in the field of bioenergetics, critical for understanding redox-coupled energy transformations.
Ambiguity alert H+.png
However, the current literature contains inconsistencies regarding H+ formation on the negative side of bioenergetic membranes, such as the matrix side of the mitochondrial inner membrane, when NADH is oxidized during oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). Ambiguities arise when examining the oxidation of NADH by respiratory Complex I or succinate by Complex II.
Ambiguity alert e-.png
Oxidation of NADH or succinate involves a two-electron transfer of 2{H++e-} to FMN or FAD, respectively. Figures indicating a single electron e- transferred from NADH or succinate lack accuracy.
Ambiguity alert NAD.png
The oxidized NAD+ is distinguished from NAD indicating nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide independent of oxidation state.
NADH + H+ β†’ NAD+ +2{H++e-} is the oxidation half-reaction in this H+-linked electron transfer represented as 2{H++e-} (Gnaiger 2023). Putative H+ formation shown as NADH β†’ NAD+ + H+ conflicts with chemiosmotic coupling stoichiometries between H+ translocation across the coupling membrane and electron transfer to oxygen. Ensuring clarity in this complex field is imperative to tackle the apparent ambiguity crisis and prevent confusion, particularly in light of the increasing number of interdisciplinary publications on bioenergetics concerning diagnostic and clinical applications of OXPHOS analysis.
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