Jezek 2023 Antioxid Redox Signal

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JeΕΎek P, JabΕ―rek M, HolendovΓ‘ B, EngstovΓ‘ H, DlaskovΓ‘ A (2023) Mitochondrial cristae morphology reflecting metabolism, superoxide formation, redox homeostasis, and pathology. Antioxid Redox Signal 39:635–83. https://doi.org/10.1089/ars.2022.0173

Β» PMID: 36793196 Open Access

Jezek P, Jaburek M, Holendova B, Engstova H, Dlaskova A (2023) Antioxid Redox Signal

Abstract: Significance: Mitochondrial (mt) reticulum network in the cell possesses amazing ultramorphology of parallel lamellar cristae, formed by the invaginated inner mitochondrial membrane. Its non-invaginated part, the inner boundary membrane (IBM) forms a cylindrical sandwich with the outer mitochondrial membrane (OMM). Crista membranes (CMs) meet IBM at crista junctions (CJs) of mt cristae organizing system (MICOS) complexes connected to OMM sorting and assembly machinery (SAM). Cristae dimensions, shape, and CJs have characteristic patterns for different metabolic regimes, physiological and pathological situations. Recent Advances: Cristae-shaping proteins were characterized, namely rows of ATP-synthase dimers forming the crista lamella edges, MICOS subunits, optic atrophy 1 (OPA1) isoforms and mitochondrial genome maintenance 1 (MGM1) filaments, prohibitins, and others. Detailed cristae ultramorphology changes were imaged by focused-ion beam/scanning electron microscopy. Dynamics of crista lamellae and mobile CJs were demonstrated by nanoscopy in living cells. With tBID-induced apoptosis a single entirely fused cristae reticulum was observed in a mitochondrial spheroid. Critical Issues: The mobility and composition of MICOS, OPA1, and ATP-synthase dimeric rows regulated by post-translational modifications might be exclusively responsible for cristae morphology changes, but ion fluxes across CM and resulting osmotic forces might be also involved. Inevitably, cristae ultramorphology should reflect also mitochondrial redox homeostasis, but details are unknown. Disordered cristae typically reflect higher superoxide formation. Future Directions: To link redox homeostasis to cristae ultramorphology and define markers, recent progress will help in uncovering mechanisms involved in proton-coupled electron transfer via the respiratory chain and in regulation of cristae architecture, leading to structural determination of superoxide formation sites and cristae ultramorphology changes in diseases.

β€’ Bioblast editor: Gnaiger E

Jezek 2023 Antioxid Redox Signal CORRECTION.png

Correction: FADH2 and Complex II

Ambiguity alert.png
FADH2 is shown as the substrate feeding electrons into Complex II (CII). This is wrong and requires correction - for details see Gnaiger (2024).
Gnaiger E (2024) Complex II ambiguities ― FADH2 in the electron transfer system. J Biol Chem 300:105470. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbc.2023.105470 - Β»Bioblast linkΒ«

Hydrogen ion ambiguities in the electron transfer system

Communicated by Gnaiger E (2023-10-08) last update 2023-11-10
Electron (e-) transfer linked to hydrogen ion (hydron; H+) transfer is a fundamental concept in the field of bioenergetics, critical for understanding redox-coupled energy transformations.
Ambiguity alert H+.png
However, the current literature contains inconsistencies regarding H+ formation on the negative side of bioenergetic membranes, such as the matrix side of the mitochondrial inner membrane, when NADH is oxidized during oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). Ambiguities arise when examining the oxidation of NADH by respiratory Complex I or succinate by Complex II.
Ambiguity alert e-.png
Oxidation of NADH or succinate involves a two-electron transfer of 2{H++e-} to FMN or FAD, respectively. Figures indicating a single electron e- transferred from NADH or succinate lack accuracy.
Ambiguity alert NAD.png
The oxidized NAD+ is distinguished from NAD indicating nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide independent of oxidation state.
NADH + H+ β†’ NAD+ +2{H++e-} is the oxidation half-reaction in this H+-linked electron transfer represented as 2{H++e-} (Gnaiger 2023). Putative H+ formation shown as NADH β†’ NAD+ + H+ conflicts with chemiosmotic coupling stoichiometries between H+ translocation across the coupling membrane and electron transfer to oxygen. Ensuring clarity in this complex field is imperative to tackle the apparent ambiguity crisis and prevent confusion, particularly in light of the increasing number of interdisciplinary publications on bioenergetics concerning diagnostic and clinical applications of OXPHOS analysis.

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Enzyme: Complex II;succinate dehydrogenase 




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