Iqbal 2018 Pathogens

From Bioblast
Publications in the MiPMap
Iqbal IK, Bajeli S, Akela AK, Kumar A (2018) Bioenergetics of Mycobacterium: an emerging landscape for drug discovery. Pathogens 7:24.

Β» PMID: 29473841 Open Access

Iqbal IK, Bajeli S, Akela AK, Kumar A (2018) Pathogens

Abstract: Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) exhibits remarkable metabolic flexibility that enables it to survive a plethora of host environments during its life cycle. With the advent of bedaquiline for treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, oxidative phosphorylation has been validated as an important target and a vulnerable component of mycobacterial metabolism. Exploiting the dependence of Mtb on oxidative phosphorylation for energy production, several components of this pathway have been targeted for the development of new antimycobacterial agents. This includes targeting NADH dehydrogenase by phenothiazine derivatives, menaquinone biosynthesis by DG70 and other compounds, terminal oxidase by imidazopyridine amides and ATP synthase by diarylquinolines. Importantly, oxidative phosphorylation also plays a critical role in the survival of persisters. Thus, inhibitors of oxidative phosphorylation can synergize with frontline TB drugs to shorten the course of treatment. In this review, we discuss the oxidative phosphorylation pathway and development of its inhibitors in detail.

β€’ Bioblast editor: Gnaiger E

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Hydrogen ion ambiguities in the electron transfer system

Communicated by Gnaiger E (2023-10-08) last update 2023-11-10
Electron (e-) transfer linked to hydrogen ion (hydron; H+) transfer is a fundamental concept in the field of bioenergetics, critical for understanding redox-coupled energy transformations.
Ambiguity alert H+.png
However, the current literature contains inconsistencies regarding H+ formation on the negative side of bioenergetic membranes, such as the matrix side of the mitochondrial inner membrane, when NADH is oxidized during oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). Ambiguities arise when examining the oxidation of NADH by respiratory Complex I or succinate by Complex II.
Ambiguity alert e-.png
Oxidation of NADH or succinate involves a two-electron transfer of 2{H++e-} to FMN or FAD, respectively. Figures indicating a single electron e- transferred from NADH or succinate lack accuracy.
Ambiguity alert NAD.png
The oxidized NAD+ is distinguished from NAD indicating nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide independent of oxidation state.
NADH + H+ β†’ NAD+ +2{H++e-} is the oxidation half-reaction in this H+-linked electron transfer represented as 2{H++e-} (Gnaiger 2023). Putative H+ formation shown as NADH β†’ NAD+ + H+ conflicts with chemiosmotic coupling stoichiometries between H+ translocation across the coupling membrane and electron transfer to oxygen. Ensuring clarity in this complex field is imperative to tackle the apparent ambiguity crisis and prevent confusion, particularly in light of the increasing number of interdisciplinary publications on bioenergetics concerning diagnostic and clinical applications of OXPHOS analysis.
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