Iakovou 2022 Front Aging Neurosci

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Iakovou E, Kourti M (2022) A comprehensive overview of the complex role of oxidative stress in aging, the contributing environmental stressors and emerging antioxidant therapeutic interventions. Front Aging Neurosci 14:827900. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnagi.2022.827900

Β» PMID: 35769600 Open Access

Iakovou E, Kourti M (2022) Front Aging Neurosci

Abstract: Introduction: Aging is a normal, inevitable, irreversible, and progressive process which is driven by internal and external factors. Oxidative stress, that is the imbalance between prooxidant and antioxidant molecules favoring the first, plays a key role in the pathophysiology of aging and comprises one of the molecular mechanisms underlying age-related diseases. However, the oxidative stress theory of aging has not been successfully proven in all animal models studying lifespan, meaning that altering oxidative stress/antioxidant defense systems did not always lead to a prolonged lifespan, as expected. On the other hand, animal models of age-related pathological phenotypes showed a well-correlated relationship with the levels of prooxidant molecules. Therefore, it seems that oxidative stress plays a more complicated role than the one once believed and this role might be affected by the environment of each organism. Environmental factors such as UV radiation, air pollution, and an unbalanced diet, have also been implicated in the pathophysiology of aging and seem to initiate this process more rapidly and even at younger ages.

Aim: The purpose of this review is to elucidate the role of oxidative stress in the physiology of aging and the effect of certain environmental factors in initiating and sustaining this process. Understanding the pathophysiology of aging will contribute to the development of strategies to postpone this phenomenon. In addition, recent studies investigating ways to alter the antioxidant defense mechanisms in order to prevent aging will be presented.

Conclusions: Careful exposure to harmful environmental factors and the use of antioxidant supplements could potentially affect the biological processes driving aging and slow down the development of age-related diseases. Maybe a prolonged lifespan could not be achieved by this strategy alone, but a longer healthspan could also be a favorable target.

β€’ Bioblast editor: Gnaiger E

Lakovou 2022 Front Aging Neurosci CORRECTION.png

Correction: FADH2 and Complex II

Ambiguity alert.png
FADH2 is shown as the substrate feeding electrons into Complex II (CII). This is wrong and requires correction - for details see Gnaiger (2024).
Gnaiger E (2024) Complex II ambiguities ― FADH2 in the electron transfer system. J Biol Chem 300:105470. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbc.2023.105470 - Β»Bioblast linkΒ«

Hydrogen ion ambiguities in the electron transfer system

Communicated by Gnaiger E (2023-10-08) last update 2023-11-10
Electron (e-) transfer linked to hydrogen ion (hydron; H+) transfer is a fundamental concept in the field of bioenergetics, critical for understanding redox-coupled energy transformations.
Ambiguity alert H+.png
However, the current literature contains inconsistencies regarding H+ formation on the negative side of bioenergetic membranes, such as the matrix side of the mitochondrial inner membrane, when NADH is oxidized during oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). Ambiguities arise when examining the oxidation of NADH by respiratory Complex I or succinate by Complex II.
Ambiguity alert e-.png
Oxidation of NADH or succinate involves a two-electron transfer of 2{H++e-} to FMN or FAD, respectively. Figures indicating a single electron e- transferred from NADH or succinate lack accuracy.
Ambiguity alert NAD.png
The oxidized NAD+ is distinguished from NAD indicating nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide independent of oxidation state.
NADH + H+ β†’ NAD+ +2{H++e-} is the oxidation half-reaction in this H+-linked electron transfer represented as 2{H++e-} (Gnaiger 2023). Putative H+ formation shown as NADH β†’ NAD+ + H+ conflicts with chemiosmotic coupling stoichiometries between H+ translocation across the coupling membrane and electron transfer to oxygen. Ensuring clarity in this complex field is imperative to tackle the apparent ambiguity crisis and prevent confusion, particularly in light of the increasing number of interdisciplinary publications on bioenergetics concerning diagnostic and clinical applications of OXPHOS analysis.
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