Hanna 2022 Front Cell Dev Biol

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Hanna J, David LA, Touahri Y, Fleming T, Screaton RA, Schuurmans C (2022) Beyond genetics: the role of metabolism in photoreceptor survival, development and repair. Front Cell Dev Biol 10:887764. https://doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2022.887764

Β» PMID: 35663397 Open Access

Hanna J, David LA, Touahri Y, Fleming T, Screaton RA, Schuurmans C (2022) Front Cell Dev Biol

Abstract: Vision commences in the retina with rod and cone photoreceptors that detect and convert light to electrical signals. The irreversible loss of photoreceptors due to neurodegenerative disease leads to visual impairment and blindness. Interventions now in development include transplanting photoreceptors, committed photoreceptor precursors, or retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells, with the latter protecting photoreceptors from dying. However, introducing exogenous human cells in a clinical setting faces both regulatory and supply chain hurdles. Recent work has shown that abnormalities in central cell metabolism pathways are an underlying feature of most neurodegenerative disorders, including those in the retina. Reversal of key metabolic alterations to drive retinal repair thus represents a novel strategy to treat vision loss based on cell regeneration. Here, we review the connection between photoreceptor degeneration and alterations in cell metabolism, along with new insights into how metabolic reprogramming drives both retinal development and repair following damage. The potential impact of metabolic reprogramming on retinal regeneration is also discussed, specifically in the context of how metabolic switches drive both retinal development and the activation of retinal glial cells known as MΓΌller glia. MΓΌller glia display latent regenerative properties in teleost fish, however, their capacity to regenerate new photoreceptors has been lost in mammals. Thus, re-activating the regenerative properties of MΓΌller glia in mammals represents an exciting new area that integrates research into developmental cues, central metabolism, disease mechanisms, and glial cell biology. In addition, we discuss this work in relation to the latest insights gleaned from other tissues (brain, muscle) and regenerative species (zebrafish).

β€’ Bioblast editor: Gnaiger E

Hanna 2022 Front Cell Dev Biol CORRECTION.png

Correction: FADH2 and Complex II

Ambiguity alert.png
FADH2 is shown as the substrate feeding electrons into Complex II (CII). This is wrong and requires correction - for details see Gnaiger (2024).
Gnaiger E (2024) Complex II ambiguities ― FADH2 in the electron transfer system. J Biol Chem 300:105470. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbc.2023.105470 - Β»Bioblast linkΒ«

Hydrogen ion ambiguities in the electron transfer system

Communicated by Gnaiger E (2023-10-08) last update 2023-11-10
Electron (e-) transfer linked to hydrogen ion (hydron; H+) transfer is a fundamental concept in the field of bioenergetics, critical for understanding redox-coupled energy transformations.
Ambiguity alert H+.png
However, the current literature contains inconsistencies regarding H+ formation on the negative side of bioenergetic membranes, such as the matrix side of the mitochondrial inner membrane, when NADH is oxidized during oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). Ambiguities arise when examining the oxidation of NADH by respiratory Complex I or succinate by Complex II.
Ambiguity alert e-.png
Oxidation of NADH or succinate involves a two-electron transfer of 2{H++e-} to FMN or FAD, respectively. Figures indicating a single electron e- transferred from NADH or succinate lack accuracy.
Ambiguity alert NAD.png
The oxidized NAD+ is distinguished from NAD indicating nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide independent of oxidation state.
NADH + H+ β†’ NAD+ +2{H++e-} is the oxidation half-reaction in this H+-linked electron transfer represented as 2{H++e-} (Gnaiger 2023). Putative H+ formation shown as NADH β†’ NAD+ + H+ conflicts with chemiosmotic coupling stoichiometries between H+ translocation across the coupling membrane and electron transfer to oxygen. Ensuring clarity in this complex field is imperative to tackle the apparent ambiguity crisis and prevent confusion, particularly in light of the increasing number of interdisciplinary publications on bioenergetics concerning diagnostic and clinical applications of OXPHOS analysis.
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