Glombik 2021 Cells

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GΕ‚ombik K, Detka J, Budziszewska B (2021) Hormonal regulation of oxidative phosphorylation in the brain in health and disease. Cells 10:2937. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10112937

Β» PMID: 34831160 Open Access

GΕ‚ombik K, Detka J, Budziszewska B (2021) Cells

Abstract: The developing and adult brain is a target organ for the vast majority of hormones produced by the body, which are able to cross the blood-brain barrier and bind to their specific receptors on neurons and glial cells. Hormones ensure proper communication between the brain and the body by activating adaptive mechanisms necessary to withstand and react to changes in internal and external conditions by regulating neuronal and synaptic plasticity, neurogenesis and metabolic activity of the brain. The influence of hormones on energy metabolism and mitochondrial function in the brain has gained much attention since mitochondrial dysfunctions are observed in many different pathological conditions of the central nervous system. Moreover, excess or deficiency of hormones is associated with cell damage and loss of function in mitochondria. This review aims to expound on the impact of hormones (GLP-1, insulin, thyroid hormones, glucocorticoids) on metabolic processes in the brain with special emphasis on oxidative phosphorylation dysregulation, which may contribute to the formation of pathological changes. Since the brain concentrations of sex hormones and neurosteroids decrease with age as well as in neurodegenerative diseases, in parallel with the occurrence of mitochondrial dysfunction and the weakening of cognitive functions, their beneficial effects on oxidative phosphorylation and expression of antioxidant enzymes are also discussed.

β€’ Bioblast editor: Gnaiger E

Glombik 2021 Cells CORRECTION.png

Correction: FADH2 and Complex II

Ambiguity alert.png
FADH2 is shown as the substrate feeding electrons into Complex II (CII). This is wrong and requires correction - for details see Gnaiger (2024).
Gnaiger E (2024) Complex II ambiguities ― FADH2 in the electron transfer system. J Biol Chem 300:105470. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbc.2023.105470 - Β»Bioblast linkΒ«

Hydrogen ion ambiguities in the electron transfer system

Communicated by Gnaiger E (2023-10-08) last update 2023-11-10
Electron (e-) transfer linked to hydrogen ion (hydron; H+) transfer is a fundamental concept in the field of bioenergetics, critical for understanding redox-coupled energy transformations.
Ambiguity alert H+.png
However, the current literature contains inconsistencies regarding H+ formation on the negative side of bioenergetic membranes, such as the matrix side of the mitochondrial inner membrane, when NADH is oxidized during oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). Ambiguities arise when examining the oxidation of NADH by respiratory Complex I or succinate by Complex II.
Ambiguity alert e-.png
Oxidation of NADH or succinate involves a two-electron transfer of 2{H++e-} to FMN or FAD, respectively. Figures indicating a single electron e- transferred from NADH or succinate lack accuracy.
Ambiguity alert NAD.png
The oxidized NAD+ is distinguished from NAD indicating nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide independent of oxidation state.
NADH + H+ β†’ NAD+ +2{H++e-} is the oxidation half-reaction in this H+-linked electron transfer represented as 2{H++e-} (Gnaiger 2023). Putative H+ formation shown as NADH β†’ NAD+ + H+ conflicts with chemiosmotic coupling stoichiometries between H+ translocation across the coupling membrane and electron transfer to oxygen. Ensuring clarity in this complex field is imperative to tackle the apparent ambiguity crisis and prevent confusion, particularly in light of the increasing number of interdisciplinary publications on bioenergetics concerning diagnostic and clinical applications of OXPHOS analysis.
Fig. 1 by GΕ‚ombik et al (2021): Red arrows indicate e- transfer from NADH through CI to Q and from FADH2 through CII to Q. In oxidation of NADH, one blue H+ appears in the matrix, which is pumped across the mtIM through CI. In fact, reducing equivalents are not pumped but are consumed in the reduction of FMN and further of UQ to UQH2. 2H+ appear in the matrix in oxidation of FADH2. Their fate is not clear (CII is not a H+ pump).
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