Fisher-Wellman 2012 Trends Endocrinol Metab

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Fisher-Wellman KH, Neufer PD (2012) Linking mitochondrial bioenergetics to insulin resistance via redox biology. Trends Endocrinol Metab 23:142-53.

Β» PMID: 22305519 Open Access

Fisher-Wellman KH, Neufer PD (2012) Trends Endocrinol Metab

Abstract: Chronic overnutrition and physical inactivity are major risk factors for insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Recent research indicates that overnutrition generates an increase in hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) emission from mitochondria, serving as a release valve to relieve the reducing pressure created by fuel overload, as well as a primary signal that ultimately decreases insulin sensitivity. H(2)O(2) is a major input to cellular redox circuits that link to cysteine residues throughout the entire proteome to regulate cell function. Here we review the principles of mitochondrial bioenergetics and redox systems biology and offer new insight into how H(2)O(2) emission may be linked via redox biology to the etiology of insulin resistance.

β€’ Bioblast editor: Gnaiger E

Fisher-Wellman 2012 Trends Endocrinol Metab CORRECTION.png

Correction: FADH2 and Complex II

Ambiguity alert.png
FADH2 is shown as the substrate feeding electrons into Complex II (CII). This is wrong and requires correction - for details see Gnaiger (2024).
Gnaiger E (2024) Complex II ambiguities ― FADH2 in the electron transfer system. J Biol Chem 300:105470. - Β»Bioblast linkΒ«

Hydrogen ion ambiguities in the electron transfer system

Communicated by Gnaiger E (2023-10-08) last update 2023-11-10
Electron (e-) transfer linked to hydrogen ion (hydron; H+) transfer is a fundamental concept in the field of bioenergetics, critical for understanding redox-coupled energy transformations.
Ambiguity alert H+.png
However, the current literature contains inconsistencies regarding H+ formation on the negative side of bioenergetic membranes, such as the matrix side of the mitochondrial inner membrane, when NADH is oxidized during oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). Ambiguities arise when examining the oxidation of NADH by respiratory Complex I or succinate by Complex II.
Ambiguity alert e-.png
Oxidation of NADH or succinate involves a two-electron transfer of 2{H++e-} to FMN or FAD, respectively. Figures indicating a single electron e- transferred from NADH or succinate lack accuracy.
Ambiguity alert NAD.png
The oxidized NAD+ is distinguished from NAD indicating nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide independent of oxidation state.
NADH + H+ β†’ NAD+ +2{H++e-} is the oxidation half-reaction in this H+-linked electron transfer represented as 2{H++e-} (Gnaiger 2023). Putative H+ formation shown as NADH β†’ NAD+ + H+ conflicts with chemiosmotic coupling stoichiometries between H+ translocation across the coupling membrane and electron transfer to oxygen. Ensuring clarity in this complex field is imperative to tackle the apparent ambiguity crisis and prevent confusion, particularly in light of the increasing number of interdisciplinary publications on bioenergetics concerning diagnostic and clinical applications of OXPHOS analysis.

Labels: Pathology: Diabetes, Obesity  Stress:Oxidative stress;RONS 

Regulation: Redox state 

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