El-Gammal 2022 Pflugers Arch

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El-Gammal Z, Nasr MA, Elmehrath AO, Salah RA, Saad SM, El-Badri N (2022) Regulation of mitochondrial temperature in health and disease. Pflugers Arch 474:1043-51. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00424-022-02719-2

Β» PMID: 35780250 Open Access

El-Gammal Z, Nasr MA, Elmehrath AO, Salah RA, Saad SM, El-Badri N (2022) Pflugers Arch

Abstract: Mitochondrial temperature is produced by various metabolic processes inside the mitochondria, particularly oxidative phosphorylation. It was recently reported that mitochondria could normally operate at high temperatures that can reach 50℃. The aim of this review is to identify mitochondrial temperature differences between normal cells and cancer cells. Herein, we discussed the different types of mitochondrial thermosensors and their advantages and disadvantages. We reviewed the studies assessing the mitochondrial temperature in cancer cells and normal cells. We shed the light on the factors involved in maintaining the mitochondrial temperature of normal cells compared to cancer cells.

β€’ Bioblast editor: Gnaiger E

El-Gammal 2022 Pflugers Arch CORRECTION.png

Correction: FADH2 and Complex II

Ambiguity alert.png
FADH2 is shown as the substrate feeding electrons into Complex II (CII). This is wrong and requires correction - for details see Gnaiger (2024).
Gnaiger E (2024) Complex II ambiguities ― FADH2 in the electron transfer system. J Biol Chem 300:105470. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbc.2023.105470 - Β»Bioblast linkΒ«

Hydrogen ion ambiguities in the electron transfer system

Communicated by Gnaiger E (2023-10-08) last update 2023-11-10
Electron (e-) transfer linked to hydrogen ion (hydron; H+) transfer is a fundamental concept in the field of bioenergetics, critical for understanding redox-coupled energy transformations.
Ambiguity alert H+.png
However, the current literature contains inconsistencies regarding H+ formation on the negative side of bioenergetic membranes, such as the matrix side of the mitochondrial inner membrane, when NADH is oxidized during oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). Ambiguities arise when examining the oxidation of NADH by respiratory Complex I or succinate by Complex II.
Ambiguity alert e-.png
Oxidation of NADH or succinate involves a two-electron transfer of 2{H++e-} to FMN or FAD, respectively. Figures indicating a single electron e- transferred from NADH or succinate lack accuracy.
Ambiguity alert NAD.png
The oxidized NAD+ is distinguished from NAD indicating nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide independent of oxidation state.
NADH + H+ β†’ NAD+ +2{H++e-} is the oxidation half-reaction in this H+-linked electron transfer represented as 2{H++e-} (Gnaiger 2023). Putative H+ formation shown as NADH β†’ NAD+ + H+ conflicts with chemiosmotic coupling stoichiometries between H+ translocation across the coupling membrane and electron transfer to oxygen. Ensuring clarity in this complex field is imperative to tackle the apparent ambiguity crisis and prevent confusion, particularly in light of the increasing number of interdisciplinary publications on bioenergetics concerning diagnostic and clinical applications of OXPHOS analysis.


Enzyme: Complex II;succinate dehydrogenase 

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