Du 2019 J Virol
|Du C, Duan Y, Wang XF, Lin Y, Na L, Wang X, Chen K, Wang X (2019) Attenuation of equine lentivirus alters mitochondrial protein expression profile from inflammation to apoptosis. J Virol 93:e00653-19.|
Abstract: Equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) is an equine lentivirus similar to HIV-1, targets host immune cells, and causes a life-long infection in horses. The Chinese live EIAV vaccine is attenuated from long-term passaging of a highly virulent strain in vitro The parent pathogenic strain (EIAVDLV34) induces a host inflammatory storm to cause severe pathological injury of animals. However, the vaccine strain (EIAVDLV121) induces a high level of apoptosis to eliminate infected cells. To investigate how these processes are regulated, we performed a comparative proteomics analysis and functional study in equine monocyte-derived macrophages (eMDMs) and found that the divergent mitochondrial protein expression profiles caused by EIAV strains with different virulence led to disparate mitochondrial function, morphology, and metabolism. This in turn promoted the distinct transformation of macrophage inflammatory polarization and intrinsic apoptosis. In EIAVDLV34-infected cells, a high level of glycolysis and increased mitochondrial fragmentation were induced, resulting in the M1-polarized proinflammatory-type transformation of macrophages and the subsequent production of a strong inflammatory response. Following infection with EIAVDLV121, the infected cells were transformed into M2-polarized anti-inflammatory macrophages by inhibition of glycolysis. In this case, a decrease in the mitochondrial membrane potential and impairment of the electron transport chain led to increased levels of apoptosis and reactive oxygen species. These results correlated with viral pathogenicity loss and may help provide an understanding of the key mechanism of lentiviral attenuation.
Following viral infection, the working pattern and function of the cell can be transformed through the impact on mitochondria. It still unknown how the mitochondrial response changes in cells infected with viruses in the process of virulence attenuation. EIAVDLV121 is the only effective lentiviral vaccine for large-scale use in the world. EIAVDLV34 is the parent pathogenic strain. Unlike EIAVDLV34-induced inflammation storms, EIAVDLV121 can induce high levels of apoptosis. For the first time, we found that, after the mitochondrial protein expression profile is altered, EIAVDLV34-infected cells are transformed into M1-polarized-type macrophages and cause inflammatory injury and that the intrinsic apoptosis pathway is activated in EIAVDLV121-infected cells. These studies shed light on how the mitochondrial protein expression profile changes between cells infected by pathogenic lentivirus strains and cells infected by attenuated lentivirus strains to drive different cellular responses, especially from inflammation to apoptosis.
Copyright © 2019 American Society for Microbiology. • Keywords: EIAV, HIV, Apoptosis, Attenuation, Equine, Inflammation, Lentivirus, Mitochondrion, Proteomics, Vaccine • Bioblast editor: Plangger M
Labels: MiParea: Respiration, mt-Medicine Pathology: Infectious Stress:Cell death Organism: Horse Tissue;cell: Blood cells, Other cell lines Preparation: Intact cells Enzyme: Complex I, Complex III, Complex IV;cytochrome c oxidase, Complex V;ATP synthase
Coupling state: OXPHOS
Labels, 2020-02, Virus, CN