De Villiers 2018 Adv Exp Med Biol

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de Villiers D, Potgieter M, Ambele MA, Adam L, Durandt C, Pepper MS (2018) The role of reactive oxygen species in adipogenic differentiation. Adv Exp Med Biol 1083:125-144. https://doi.org/10.1007/5584_2017_119

Β» PMID: 29139087

de Villiers D, Potgieter M, Ambele MA, Adam L, Durandt C, Pepper MS (2018) Adv Exp Med Biol

Abstract: Interest in reactive oxygen species and adipocyte differentiation/adipose tissue function is steadily increasing. This is due in part to a search for alternative avenues for combating obesity, which results from the excess accumulation of adipose tissue. Obesity is a major risk factor for complex disorders such as cancer, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases. The ability of mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) to differentiate into adipocytes is often used as a model for studying adipogenesis in vitro. A key focus is the effect of both intra- and extracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) on adipogenesis. The consensus from the majority of studies is that ROS, irrespective of the source, promote adipogenesis.The effect of ROS on adipogenesis is suppressed by antioxidants or ROS scavengers. Reactive oxygen species are generated during the process of adipocyte differentiation as well as by other cell metabolic processes. Despite many studies in this field, it is still not possible to state with certainty whether ROS measured during adipocyte differentiation are a cause or consequence of this process. In addition, it is still unclear what the exact sources are of the ROS that initiate and/or drive adipogenic differentiation in MSCs in vivo. This review provides an overview of our understanding of the role of ROS in adipocyte differentiation as well as how certain ROS scavengers and antioxidants might affect this process.

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Correction: FADH2 and Complex II

Ambiguity alert.png
FADH2 is shown as the substrate feeding electrons into Complex II (CII). This is wrong and requires correction - for details see Gnaiger (2024).
Gnaiger E (2024) Complex II ambiguities ― FADH2 in the electron transfer system. J Biol Chem 300:105470. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbc.2023.105470 - Β»Bioblast linkΒ«

Hydrogen ion ambiguities in the electron transfer system

Communicated by Gnaiger E (2023-10-08) last update 2023-11-10
Electron (e-) transfer linked to hydrogen ion (hydron; H+) transfer is a fundamental concept in the field of bioenergetics, critical for understanding redox-coupled energy transformations.
Ambiguity alert H+.png
However, the current literature contains inconsistencies regarding H+ formation on the negative side of bioenergetic membranes, such as the matrix side of the mitochondrial inner membrane, when NADH is oxidized during oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). Ambiguities arise when examining the oxidation of NADH by respiratory Complex I or succinate by Complex II.
Ambiguity alert e-.png
Oxidation of NADH or succinate involves a two-electron transfer of 2{H++e-} to FMN or FAD, respectively. Figures indicating a single electron e- transferred from NADH or succinate lack accuracy.
Ambiguity alert NAD.png
The oxidized NAD+ is distinguished from NAD indicating nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide independent of oxidation state.
NADH + H+ β†’ NAD+ +2{H++e-} is the oxidation half-reaction in this H+-linked electron transfer represented as 2{H++e-} (Gnaiger 2023). Putative H+ formation shown as NADH β†’ NAD+ + H+ conflicts with chemiosmotic coupling stoichiometries between H+ translocation across the coupling membrane and electron transfer to oxygen. Ensuring clarity in this complex field is imperative to tackle the apparent ambiguity crisis and prevent confusion, particularly in light of the increasing number of interdisciplinary publications on bioenergetics concerning diagnostic and clinical applications of OXPHOS analysis.

Labels:

Stress:Oxidative stress;RONS 

Tissue;cell: Fat 



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