Cowan 2019 CNS Neurosci Ther

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Cowan K, Anichtchik O, Luo S (2019) Mitochondrial integrity in neurodegeneration. CNS Neurosci Ther 25:825-36. https://doi.org/10.1111/cns.13105

Β» PMID: 30746905 Open Access

Cowan K, Anichtchik O, Luo S (2019) CNS Neurosci Ther

Abstract: The mitochondrion is a unique organelle with a diverse range of functions. Mitochondrial dysfunction is a key pathological process in several neurodegenerative diseases. Mitochondria are mostly important for energy production; however, they also have roles in Ca2+ homeostasis, ROS production, and apoptosis. There are two major systems in place, which regulate mitochondrial integrity, mitochondrial dynamics, and mitophagy. These two processes remove damaged mitochondria from cells and protect the functional mitochondrial population. These quality control systems often become dysfunctional during neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease, causing mitochondrial dysfunction and severe neurological symptoms.

β€’ Bioblast editor: Gnaiger E

Cowan 2019 CNS Neurosci Ther CORRECTION.png

Correction: FADH2 and Complex II

Ambiguity alert.png
FADH2 is shown as the substrate feeding electrons into Complex II (CII). This is wrong and requires correction - for details see Gnaiger (2024).
Gnaiger E (2024) Complex II ambiguities ― FADH2 in the electron transfer system. J Biol Chem 300:105470. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbc.2023.105470 - Β»Bioblast linkΒ«

Hydrogen ion ambiguities in the electron transfer system

Communicated by Gnaiger E (2023-10-08) last update 2023-11-10
Electron (e-) transfer linked to hydrogen ion (hydron; H+) transfer is a fundamental concept in the field of bioenergetics, critical for understanding redox-coupled energy transformations.
Ambiguity alert H+.png
However, the current literature contains inconsistencies regarding H+ formation on the negative side of bioenergetic membranes, such as the matrix side of the mitochondrial inner membrane, when NADH is oxidized during oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). Ambiguities arise when examining the oxidation of NADH by respiratory Complex I or succinate by Complex II.
Ambiguity alert e-.png
Oxidation of NADH or succinate involves a two-electron transfer of 2{H++e-} to FMN or FAD, respectively. Figures indicating a single electron e- transferred from NADH or succinate lack accuracy.
Ambiguity alert NAD.png
The oxidized NAD+ is distinguished from NAD indicating nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide independent of oxidation state.
NADH + H+ β†’ NAD+ +2{H++e-} is the oxidation half-reaction in this H+-linked electron transfer represented as 2{H++e-} (Gnaiger 2023). Putative H+ formation shown as NADH β†’ NAD+ + H+ conflicts with chemiosmotic coupling stoichiometries between H+ translocation across the coupling membrane and electron transfer to oxygen. Ensuring clarity in this complex field is imperative to tackle the apparent ambiguity crisis and prevent confusion, particularly in light of the increasing number of interdisciplinary publications on bioenergetics concerning diagnostic and clinical applications of OXPHOS analysis.
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