Bayona-Bafaluy 2021 Redox Biol

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Bayona-Bafaluy MP, Garrido-PΓ©rez N, Meade P, Iglesias E, JimΓ©nez-Salvador I, Montoya J, MartΓ­nez-CuΓ© C, Ruiz-Pesini E (2021) Down syndrome is an oxidative phosphorylation disorder. Redox Biol 41:101871.

Β» PMID: 33540295 Open Access

Bayona-Bafaluy MP, Garrido-Perez N, Meade P, Iglesias E, Jimenez-Salvador I, Montoya J, Martinez-Cue C, Ruiz-Pesini E (2021) Redox Biol

Abstract: Down syndrome is the most common genomic disorder of intellectual disability and is caused by trisomy of chromosome 21. Several genes in this chromosome repress mitochondrial biogenesis. The goal of this study was to evaluate whether early overexpression of these genes may cause a prenatal impairment of oxidative phosphorylation negatively affecting neurogenesis. Reduction in the mitochondrial energy production and a lower mitochondrial function have been reported in diverse tissues or cell types, and also at any age, including early fetuses, suggesting that a defect in oxidative phosphorylation is an early and general event in Down syndrome individuals. Moreover, many of the medical conditions associated with Down syndrome are also frequently found in patients with oxidative phosphorylation disease. Several drugs that enhance mitochondrial biogenesis are nowadays available and some of them have been already tested in mouse models of Down syndrome restoring neurogenesis and cognitive defects. Because neurogenesis relies on a correct mitochondrial function and critical periods of brain development occur mainly in the prenatal and early neonatal stages, therapeutic approaches intended to improve oxidative phosphorylation should be provided in these periods.

β€’ Bioblast editor: Gnaiger E

Bayona-Bafaluy 2021 Redox Biol CORRECTION.png

Correction: FADH2 and Complex II

Ambiguity alert.png
FADH2 is shown as the substrate feeding electrons into Complex II (CII). This is wrong and requires correction - for details see Gnaiger (2024).
Gnaiger E (2024) Complex II ambiguities ― FADH2 in the electron transfer system. J Biol Chem 300:105470. - Β»Bioblast linkΒ«

Hydrogen ion ambiguities in the electron transfer system

Communicated by Gnaiger E (2023-10-08) last update 2023-11-10
Electron (e-) transfer linked to hydrogen ion (hydron; H+) transfer is a fundamental concept in the field of bioenergetics, critical for understanding redox-coupled energy transformations.
Ambiguity alert H+.png
However, the current literature contains inconsistencies regarding H+ formation on the negative side of bioenergetic membranes, such as the matrix side of the mitochondrial inner membrane, when NADH is oxidized during oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). Ambiguities arise when examining the oxidation of NADH by respiratory Complex I or succinate by Complex II.
Ambiguity alert e-.png
Oxidation of NADH or succinate involves a two-electron transfer of 2{H++e-} to FMN or FAD, respectively. Figures indicating a single electron e- transferred from NADH or succinate lack accuracy.
Ambiguity alert NAD.png
The oxidized NAD+ is distinguished from NAD indicating nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide independent of oxidation state.
NADH + H+ β†’ NAD+ +2{H++e-} is the oxidation half-reaction in this H+-linked electron transfer represented as 2{H++e-} (Gnaiger 2023). Putative H+ formation shown as NADH β†’ NAD+ + H+ conflicts with chemiosmotic coupling stoichiometries between H+ translocation across the coupling membrane and electron transfer to oxygen. Ensuring clarity in this complex field is imperative to tackle the apparent ambiguity crisis and prevent confusion, particularly in light of the increasing number of interdisciplinary publications on bioenergetics concerning diagnostic and clinical applications of OXPHOS analysis.
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