Bajeli 2020 Front Cell Infect Microbiol

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Bajeli S, Baid N, Kaur M, Pawar GP, Chaudhari VD, Kumar A (2020) Terminal respiratory oxidases: a targetables vulnerability of mycobacterial bioenergetics? Front Cell Infect Microbiol 10:589318.

Β» PMID: 33330134 Open Access

Bajeli S, Baid N, Kaur M, Pawar GP, Chaudhari VD, Kumar A (2020) Front Cell Infect Microbiol

Abstract: Recently, ATP synthase inhibitor Bedaquiline was approved for the treatment of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis emphasizing the importance of oxidative phosphorylation for the survival of mycobacteria. ATP synthesis is primarily dependent on the generation of proton motive force through the electron transport chain in mycobacteria. The mycobacterial electron transport chain utilizes two terminal oxidases for the reduction of oxygen, namely the bc1-aa3 supercomplex and the cytochrome bd oxidase. The bc1-aa3 supercomplex is an energy-efficient terminal oxidase that pumps out four vectoral protons, besides consuming four scalar protons during the transfer of electrons from menaquinone to molecular oxygen. In the past few years, several inhibitors of bc1-aa3 supercomplex have been developed, out of which, Q203 belonging to the class of imidazopyridine, has moved to clinical trials. Recently, the crystal structure of the mycobacterial cytochrome bc1-aa3 supercomplex was solved, providing details of the route of transfer of electrons from menaquinone to molecular oxygen. Besides providing insights into the molecular functioning, crystal structure is aiding in the targeted drug development. On the other hand, the second respiratory terminal oxidase of the mycobacterial respiratory chain, cytochrome bd oxidase, does not pump out the vectoral protons and is energetically less efficient. However, it can detoxify the reactive oxygen species and facilitate mycobacterial survival during a multitude of stresses. Quinolone derivatives (CK-2-63) and quinone derivative (Aurachin D) inhibit cytochrome bd oxidase. Notably, ablation of both the two terminal oxidases simultaneously through genetic methods or pharmacological inhibition leads to the rapid death of the mycobacterial cells. Thus, terminal oxidases have emerged as important drug targets. In this review, we have described the current understanding of the functioning of these two oxidases, their physiological relevance to mycobacteria, and their inhibitors. Besides these, we also describe the alternative terminal complexes that are used by mycobacteria to maintain energized membrane during hypoxia and anaerobic conditions.

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Hydrogen ion ambiguities in the electron transfer system

Communicated by Gnaiger E (2023-10-08) last update 2023-11-10
Electron (e-) transfer linked to hydrogen ion (hydron; H+) transfer is a fundamental concept in the field of bioenergetics, critical for understanding redox-coupled energy transformations.
Ambiguity alert H+.png
However, the current literature contains inconsistencies regarding H+ formation on the negative side of bioenergetic membranes, such as the matrix side of the mitochondrial inner membrane, when NADH is oxidized during oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). Ambiguities arise when examining the oxidation of NADH by respiratory Complex I or succinate by Complex II.
Ambiguity alert e-.png
Oxidation of NADH or succinate involves a two-electron transfer of 2{H++e-} to FMN or FAD, respectively. Figures indicating a single electron e- transferred from NADH or succinate lack accuracy.
Ambiguity alert NAD.png
The oxidized NAD+ is distinguished from NAD indicating nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide independent of oxidation state.
NADH + H+ β†’ NAD+ +2{H++e-} is the oxidation half-reaction in this H+-linked electron transfer represented as 2{H++e-} (Gnaiger 2023). Putative H+ formation shown as NADH β†’ NAD+ + H+ conflicts with chemiosmotic coupling stoichiometries between H+ translocation across the coupling membrane and electron transfer to oxygen. Ensuring clarity in this complex field is imperative to tackle the apparent ambiguity crisis and prevent confusion, particularly in light of the increasing number of interdisciplinary publications on bioenergetics concerning diagnostic and clinical applications of OXPHOS analysis.
Fig. 1 by Bejali et al (2020): The meaning of e- attached to various enzymes is not clear. For indication of electron transfer, corresponding arrows should be added.
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