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Bioblasts - Richard Altmann and MiPArt by Odra Noel
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PGM: Pyruvate & Glutamate & Malate.

MitoPathway control state: NADH Electron transfer-pathway state

SUIT protocol: SUIT-001, SUIT-012, SUIT-014

Pyruvate (P) is oxidatively decarboxylated to acetyl-CoA and CO2, yielding NADH catalyzed by pyruvate dehydrogenase. Malate (M) is oxidized to oxaloacetate by mt-malate dehydrogenase located in the mitochondrial matrix. Condensation of oxaloacate with acetyl-CoA yields citrate (citrate synthase). Glutamate&malate is a substrate combination supporting an N-linked pathway control state, when glutamate is transported into the mt-matrix via the glutamate-aspartate carrier and reacts with oxaloacetate in the transaminase reaction to form aspartate and oxoglutarate. Glutamate as the sole substrate is transported by the electroneutral glutamate-/OH- exchanger, and is oxidized in the mitochondrial matrix by glutamate dehydrogenase to α-ketoglutarate ( 2-oxoglutarate), representing the glutamate anaplerotic pathway control state. 2-oxoglutarate (α-ketoglutarate) is formed from isocitrate (isocitrate dehydrogenase, from oxaloacetate and glutamate by the transaminase, and from glutamate by the glutamate dehydrogenase.

Abbreviation: PGM

Reference: Gnaiger 2014 MitoPathways - Chapter 5.3

MitoPedia concepts: SUIT state 

More details
» NADH Electron transfer-pathway state
» Additive effect of convergent electron flow
» Respiratory complexes - more than five
» Convergent electron flow


PGM pathway in the LEAK state can be evaluated in the following SUIT protocols:


PGM pathway in the OXPHOS state can be evaluated in the following SUIT protocols:


PGM pathway in the ET state can be evaluated in the following SUIT protocols: