MitoPedia: Uncouplers

From Bioblast
Jump to: navigation, search
Bioblasts - Richard Altmann and MiPArt by Odra Noel
Bioblast         MitoPedia         Terms and abbreviations         Concepts and methods         Oroboros O2k         MiP and biochemistry         Preprints and history



MitoPedia

MitoPedia: Uncouplers

MitoPedia - high-resolution terminology - matching measurements at high-resolution.
The MitoPedia terminology is developed continuously in the spirit of Gentle Science.


» Definition: Uncoupler
» O2k-Publications: Uncoupler, »Coupling efficiency;uncoupling
TermAbbreviationDescription
BAM15BAM152-fluorophenyl){6-[(2-fluorophenyl)amino](1,2,5-oxadiazolo[3,4-e]pyrazin-5-yl)}amine (BAM15) is a protonophore or uncoupler of oxidative phosphorylation detected in a screen for uncoupling agents exerting less toxicity than commonly used uncouplers and first described by Kennwood et al. 2013. In their comparison of BAM15 with FCCP it was shown to increase oxygen flux to a similar extent as the classical uncoupler, to display a much broader range of concentrations inducing maximum respiration, to stimulate no formation of H2O2, to leave cellular membrane potential unaffected, and to ultimately exert less cytotoxicity.
Carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazoneCCCP, UCarbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazone, CCCP (U; C9H5ClN4; FW = 204.62) is a protonophore (H+ ionophore) and is used as a potent chemical uncoupler of oxidative phosphorylation. Like all uncouplers, CCCP concentrations must be titrated carefully to evaluated the optimum concentration for maximum stimulation of mitochondrial respiration, particularly to avoid inhibition of respiration at higher CCCP concentrations.
DinitrophenoleDNP2,4-dinitrophenole (C6H4N2O5; FW = 184.11) is a protonophore acting as an uncoupler of oxidative phosphorylation.
ET-capacityEE.jpg ET-capacity is the respiratory electron transfer-pathway capacity, E, of mitochondria measured as oxygen consumption in the noncoupled state at optimum uncoupler concentration. This optimum concentration is obtained by stepwise titration of an established protonophore to induce maximum oxygen flux as the determinant of ET-capacity. The experimentally induced noncoupled state at optimum uncoupler concentration is thus distinguished from (i) a wide range of uncoupled states at any experimental uncoupler concentration, (ii) physiological uncoupled states controlled by intrinsic uncoupling (e.g. UCP1 in brown fat), and (iii) pathological dyscoupled states indicative of mitochondrial injuries or toxic effects of pharmacological or environmental substances. ET-capacity in mitochondrial preparations requires the addition of defined fuel substrates to establish an ET-pathway competent state. » MiPNet article
FCCPFCCPFCCP (Carbonyl cyanide p-trifluoro-methoxyphenyl hydrazone, C10H5F3N4O) is a protonophore or uncoupler: added at uncoupler concentration Uc; c is the optimum uncoupler concentration in titrations to obtain maximum mitochondrial respiration in the noncoupled state of ET-capacity.
Metabolic control variableXA metabolic control variable, X, causes the transition between a background state, YX, and a reference state, ZX. X may be a stimulator or activator of flux, inducing the step change from background to reference steady state (Y to Z). Alternatively, X may be an inhibitor of flux, absent in the reference state but present in the background state (step change from Z to Y).
Proton slipProton slip is a property of the proton pumps (Complexes CI, CIII, and CIV) when the proton slips back to the matrix side within the proton pumping process. Slip is different from the proton leak, which depends on Δp and is a property of the inner mt-membrane (including the boundaries between membrane-spanning proteins and the lipid phase). Slip is an uncoupling process that depends mainly on flux and contributes to a reduction in the biochemical coupling efficiency of ATP production and oxygen consumption. Together with proton leak and cation cycling, proton slip is compensated for by LEAK respiration or LEAK oxygen flux, L. Compare: Proton leak.
State 3uEE.jpg Noncoupled state of ET-capacity. State 3u (u for uncoupled) has been used frequently in bioenergetics, without sufficient emphasis (e.g. Villani et al 1998) on the fundamental difference between OXPHOS capacity (P, coupled with an uncoupled contribution; State 3) and noncoupled ET-capacity (E; State 3u) (Gnaiger 2009; Rasmussen and Rasmussen 2000).
Substrate-uncoupler-inhibitor titrationSUITMitochondrial Substrate-uncoupler-inhibitor titration (SUIT) protocols are used with mitochondrial preparations to study respiratory control in a sequence of coupling and substrates states induced by multiple titrations within a single experimental assay.
Tetrachloro-2-trifluoromethylbenzimidazoleTTFB4,5,6,7-Tetrachloro-2-trifluoromethylbenzimidazole is a protonophore or uncoupler of oxidative phosphorylation.
UncouplerUAn uncoupler is a protonophore (CCCP, FCCP, DNP) which cycles across the inner mt-membrane with transport of protons and dissipation of the electrochemical proton gradient. Mild uncoupling may be induced at low uncoupler concentrations, the noncoupled state of ET-capacity is obtained at optimum uncoupler concentration for maximum flux, whereas at higher concentrations an uncoupler-induced inhibition is observed. » MiPNet article
Uncoupling protein 1UCP1Uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) is also called thermogenin and is predominantly found in brown adipose tissue (BAT). UCP1 belongs to the gene family of uncoupling proteins. It is vital for the maintenance of body temperature, especially for small mammals. As the essential component of non-shivering thermogenesis, it possesses the ability to build and open a pore in the inner mitochondrial membrane through which protons may flow along their electrochemical gradient, generated by respiration, bypassing the ATP-producing re-entry site at the F1F0-ATP synthase. Thereby the energy stored in the electrochemical gradient is dissipated as heat.
Uncoupling protein 2UCP2Uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) belongs to the gene family of uncoupling proteins. Whereas UCP1 acts as an uncoupler, this may not be the case for UCP2.
Uncoupling proteinsUCPUncoupling proteins (UCPs) are mitochondrial anion carrier proteins that can be found in the inner mitochondrial membranes of animals and plants. UCP1 acts as an uncoupler by dissipating the electrochemical proton gradient (mitochondrial membrane potential), generated by the electron transfer-pathway by pumping protons from the mitochondrial matrix to the mitochondrial intermembrane space.


Related topics

 »O2k-Publications: Coupling efficiency;uncoupling
 »O2k-Publications: Instruments;methods
 »Uncoupler