MiPArt 10

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Tempo giusto - 30 Jahre

Das rechte Tempo im LEBEN und in der MUSIK

Uwe Kliemt (Hamburg) - Pianist und ZEIT-forscher hält einen Gesprächs-Vortrag mit Musikbeispielen in der MiPArt. 30 Jahre Willem Retze Talsma (1980) Wiedergeburt der Klassiker. Anleitung zur Entmechanisierung der Musik. Wort und Welt Verlag Innsbruck, Thaur 1980. - »Bioblast link« Anwendungen und Entwic– das Leben bis in die tiefsten Bereiche unserer Kultur. Verbrennungsmotoren und Elektrogeräte treiben nicht nur immer schneller an, sie tragen auch durch übersteigerten Raubbau an den globalen Ressourcen zur Überhitzung des Klimas bei. In der schnelllebigen Zeit sind wir reich an Energie und arm an Zeit. Ein überhöhtes Tempo prägt unseren Alltag, ohne dass die beschleunigte Fortbewegung einen Zeitgewinn erbringt. Doch was würde uns auch alle Zeit der Welt nützen, wenn diese der Energiereserven und biologischen Vielfalt beraubt ist und die Zukunft der Menschheit durch ökonomische Überhitzung verarmt zurückbleibt.

  • Zunahme der Geschwindigkeit = Weg/Zeit: Die Wege werden immer länger und der Zeitaufwand steigt.
  • Zunahme der Geschwindigkeit = Anzahl/Zeit: Die Briefe werden immer mehr und schneller (SMS, Emails) und der Zeitaufwand steigt.
  • Zunahme von Takt und Tempo = Zyklen/Zeit: Die Bildabfolgen werden schneller (TV) und wir glotzen immer länger.
  • Zunahme der Geschwindigkeit (Leistung) = Energie/Zeit: Die Energieverschwendung wird gesteigert und wir beklagen uns über den Mangel an Zeit.
Uwe Kliemt

Ist uns ein angemessenes Tempo abhanden gekommen? Ist die Beschleunigung Teil eines Irrsinns unserer Zeit? Bleibt uns noch Zeit zur Besinnung? Tempo Giusto – das angemessene Tempo in der Musik und die Wiedergeburt der Klassiker – ein revolutionärer Entwurf zur Wiederbesinnung.

Tempo giusto in der MiPArt

Die mitochondrielle Physiologie (MiP) greift das Thema ‚Tempo’ anhand der Geschwindigkeiten des Energieumsatzes in der lebenden Zelle auf. Das Tempo und die Effizienz der Zellatmung (ein biologischer Verbrennungsprozess) sind durch evolutive Optimierung im Rahmen ergodynamischer Naturgesetze geregelt und auf die verschiedenen Lklungen der Thermodynamik haben mit der Dampfmaschine die Industrielle Revolution angefeuert. Die damit einhergehende Beschleunigung von Energieströmen prägt seither unsere industrielle Zivilisation und durchdringt – einmalig in der gesamten Menschheitsgeschichte ebensfunktionen abgestimmt – vom explosiven Einsatz der Muskelkraft im Wettlauf um die Beute bis zum maßvollen Drosseln des Energieumsatzes im Winterschlaf. Tempo giusto ist keine Anleitung zur Langsamkeit, sondern eine Wiederentdeckung der lebendigen Rhythmen zwischen Spannung und Entspannung, des Herzschlags zwischen Ruhe und Bewegung, der Sinnlichkeit und Lebendigkeit von in angemessenem Tempo vorgetragener Musik.

Für den von toten mechanischen Bewegungen umgebenen Menschen des technischen Zeitalters ist die Musik aus dem vortechnischen Zeitalter nicht mehr verständlich. Konkret ausgedrückt bedeutet es, daß wir heutzutage kein Verständnis für die klassischen „Selbstverständlichkeiten“ von Takt und Tempo haben. … Takt bedeutet jetzt gewöhnlich nicht mehr als eine von außen her aufgezwungene Unfreiheit, und Tempo ist meistens Anlaß zum Demonstrieren technisch-mechanischer Fähigkeiten. Für den Menschen aus dem vortechnischen Zeitalter hatte das Wort Takt eine ganz andere Bedeutung: es war Ausdruck einer gewissermaßen unumgänglichen Ordnung, der man sich ohne weiteres hingab. Die Bewegung eines Baumes im Wind, die Wellenbewegung des Meeres, der Wechsel der Jahreszeiten, diese geordneten Bewegungen, diese Rhythmen sind gleichsam der Schlüssel zum richtigen Verständnis früher Musik. - Willem Retze Talsma (1980) Wiedergeburt der Klassiker.

Willem Retze Talsma

  • Talsma WR (1980) Wiedergeburt der Klassiker. Anleitung zur Entmechanisierung der Musik. Wort und Welt Verlag Innsbruck, Thaur 1980. - »Bioblast link«

The following text is a direct copy from http://personal.redestb.es/albertoms. The phone number and CENTRE TEMPO GIUSTO Email are not operational now (Nov. 2009 to July 2010). Fully appreciating the copyright by the CENTRE TEMPO GIUSTO, the present copy ensures continued accessibility to the text by Willem Retze Talsma.

Tempo and character in 18th and early 19th century music - by Willem R. Talsma

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The basic reason for insecurity as to the performance of the music of our Classics is that 20th century music practice has lost sight of fundamental knowledge. The 18th century musician called it Tempo Giusto. The notion Tempo Giusto did not only refer to tempo, but to performance in general to the character of the composition. Tempo giusto 20th century dictionaries merely give a literal translation: the "right tempo" of a composition. 18th century sources refer to the natural value of the notes and the natural movement of different kinds of measures. These notions and their consequences need an explanation, which will be given in the classic question-and-answer form: Question: What is meant by the "natural value" of the notes? Answer: Each had its proper duration and character, the starting point being the quarter note, considered as the mean note value. The duration of the different kinds of notes was related to the duration of the quarter note, thought of as about a second. The character of those notes longer than the quarter note was achieved by a heavier, and of the shorter ones, by a lighter execution. The violinist would use respectively a longer and heavier or shorter and lighter bowing. Q: What is meant by the "natural movement" of the measures? A: When the different kinds of notes were combined in different rhythmic/metric patterns, or measures, they did not lose their duration and character. That is to say that each measure had its own tempo and character. Q: What are the basic practical musical consequences which stem from this basic notion? A: The notation of an 18th century score states not only the tempo but also the character of the composition. Works such as those of J.S.Bach which did not bear the so-called "Italian" tempo indications were played in "Tempo Giusto". "Tempo Giusto" depended on the natural movement of the measures and the shortest notes used in a particular work. Q: What was the meaning of the Italian expressions of character and tempo? A: Their classical meaning can only be understood in relation to the "Tempo Giusto". They indicated comparatively minor deviations of character and tempo, already expressed in the notation of the score. Q: What was the reason that the knowledge of the basic 18th century Tempo Giusto concept got lost? A: The 19th century Industrial Revolution had a profound impact on thinking and feeling in the western word. In this process, natural structures and traditional knowledge were lost. Among other things this caused a break in Man's relationship with nature, the Environment and his past. Q: What is the 20th century musical situation seen from this historical perspective? A: Our musical practice, together with all other aspects of western culture, has been profoundly affected by the Industrial Revolution. The 20th century interpretations of our Classics -the music of the 18th and early 19th centuries- can be characterized by what might be called a polarization of the tempo: the fast movements are played too fast, the slow movements too slowly. The Tempo Giusto, the connection with the past, has been lost. Because of this polarization, the rhythmic/metric and harmonic structures of compositions are no longer perceived, and so their character cannot be expressed. Q: What is the reason underlying this polarization? A: It reflects the same behaviour which 20th century Man shows to the environment, the creation: HE IGNORES STRUCTURES. Q: How can we rediscover the character, and thereby understand the spiritual meaning, of the music of our Classics? A: The answer is simple, but indeed so simple that it appears difficult for the "sophisticated ego" of the 20th century. We should learn anew to identify ourselves with structures: the structure of the composition, its rhythmic/metric and harmonic quality, its metre -that is to say, the expression of a once-living reality.

This general analysis of our musical and spiritual situation is put forward by the "CENTRE TEMPO GIUSTO", based on the research of its founder, WILLEM RETZE TALSMA, and published for the first time in his book: WIEDERGEBURT DER KLASSIKER. ANLEITUNG ZUR ENTMECHANISIERUNG DER MUSIK (Innsbruck, 1980, 1988). ("Rebirth of our classics. Manual for the demechanization of music") the musical results of his research are also reflected in the following writings:

  • DIE KLAVIERSONATEN BEETHOVEN'S IN ZEITGENOESSISCHEN ZEUGNISSEN. (Innsbruck, 1980,1988 )

("Beethoven's Sonatas for piano in contemporary testimonies".) Those testimonies transmit practical musical information coming directly from the composer himself and musicians who were very close to him, and reveal that the character of these "Tongedichte", as Beethoven himself called them, was more poetic and their tempo less exaggerated than our 20th century concert-practice leads us to believe. The "professional" will discover that he no longer needs to submit himself to extreme technical training. The "enlightened amateur" will be surprised to find that Beethonven's sonatas are once more within his reach: they were written for him or her, not for the distracting concert hall, not for the "virtuosos", in the 20th century meaning of the word. (An English edition is in preparation.)

  • TEMPO AND CHARACTER IN 18TH AND EARLY 19TH CENTURY MUSIC.

This work is to be a practical musical guide for the intelligent musician or music-lover, who requires clear answers on clear questions. It is the result of almost a life-time of musical confrontation with the classical fundamentals on the part of the author. Both works - the first has recently been completed and the second is nearing completion, need an imaginative editor, who understands that the musician of the future requires real information and a genuine human perspective. Experience gathered over a period of years and in collaboration with other disciplines, has led to the conclusion that the music of our classics, played in the light of its structure and with understanding of its timeless human character, can be one of the most transcendental forces which mankind has at its disposition to face the challenges of the future, to survive both mentally and physically, on entry to the 21st century. Being aware of the fact, that words cannot fully explain musical phenomenona, the CENTRE TEMPO GIUSTO offers personal-musical backing: courses for musicians-instrumentalists, singers, alone or in ensemble who want to discover classical proportions and thus themselves creative. It is open for all kinds of expositions, articles and discussions, related to the musical aspects of the tempo.

Biography

Born in 1927 , in the Netherlands, he has been involved in the following spheres of activity:

Pianist and accompanist. Organist and choirmaster of the Zorgvlietkerk, the Hague-Scheveningen. Founder and conductor of a chamber-choir. Concerts and lecture-recitals on the historical keyboard instruments of the Gemeente Museum, the Hague. Live and broadcast concerts all over Europe. Recordings for several companies, such as Archiv Deutsche Grammophon. In 1967 he was awarded the international Grand Prix du Disque Edison. His musical education can be considered as something of an anachronism. He received his first and decisive musical experiences in the West Frisian village of Wognum, where, thanks to an exceptionally gifted musician of the first half of the nineteenth century, the school-master Jacob Kwast, children had taken daily professional music lessons following the classical rules and conventions. The tiny village thus became a sort of Schola Cantorum, bringing with it an internationally reputed choral tradition which lasted well into the twentieth century. As a result of this background, when furthering his professional education, he sought out musicians who still preserved the dying elements of a classical musical tradition going straight back as far as the eighteenth century. He owes much to a distinguished ex-singer who taught and explained the classical solfege she had originally learned from her beloved teacher Frans August Gevaert (1828-1908). Gevaert in his turn was the favourite pupil and successor as Director of the Brussels Conservatory of the prestigious musicologist Francois Joseph Fétis(1785-1871). In 1973 Talsma left the Netherlands for Spain, relinquishing a promising concert career, to reflect and give up all his time and energy to the investigation of the historical and scientific foundations of the musical heritage he had received. It seemed to him that the eighteenth and early nineteenth century sources used a musical language with which he was already familiar, thus revealing more information than he had expected. His historical and musical research led him to a revolutionary conclusion; western music practice has lost its roots. Twentieth century performances of the music of the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries no longer reflect the intentions of the composer, but are instead the product of the nihilistic thinking and materialistic behaviour which dominate today«s society. In 1980 he publised his book "Wiederburt der Klassiker. Anleitung zur Entmechanisierung der Musik." (The Rebirth of our Classics. Manual for the demechanization of music.) (Innsbruck, 1980,1988). Here, for the first time he reveals this concusion and its historical foundation. Since 1980 his life has been given up to the teaching of the classical fundamentals, to the recovery of the spiritual and healing impact of our musical heritage. Why not let his teaching change your personal life? It could even change our society.

At the moment he lives in Murcia (Spain). His phone number and fax is: 34-68-264887.

In Search of Willem Retze Talsma

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The intellectual and cultural heritage of Willem Retze Talsma is enormous. In 2010, we remember and discuss his achievements in a series of lectures devoted to WIEDERGEBURT DER KLASSIKER published by Willem Retze Talsma in 1980 (Wort und Welt Verlag Innsbruck - Thaur). Any documents from Willem Retze Talsma will provide an invaluable contribution to keep our memories alive and transmit the spirit of Tempo Giusto, as re-discovered by Willem Retze Talsma - to future generations. We would appreciate your feedback and further information. In 1982, I had the special opportunity to discuss over the period of several weeks the concept of Tempo Giusto with Willem Retze Talsma, when he stayed as my guest with me at the 'Unterer Schlosshof' close to the Romedius chapel above Thaur. During this summer he performed a beautiful concert at the Ambraser Schlosskonzerte, and we organized a concert in Thaur (Romedius Kirche) where Willem Retze Talsma played together with Bernhard Handel (Volders). I have lost contact then during my years of international travel. Is there a way to learn more about his further achievements?

  • Where did Willem Retze Talsma die (2008)?
  • Where is he buried?
  • Who knows about his unpublished manuscripts and historical documents?

Many thanks for your feedback,

Erich Gnaiger, MiPArt Galerie; T +43 512 566796; Email: erich.gnaiger@oroboros.at

Further contacts:

I have no time

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Ergodynamics not only deals with energy transformations other than thermal energy, it emphasizes explicitely the factor of time. On the other hand, thermodynamics "has nothing to do with time" (Alberty and Daniels, 1980). The mechanistic‑thermodynamic society does not want to have anything to do with time. In more physical terms, industrial society aims at the minimization of time at enormous costs. Highest speed is quickest is best. Ergodynamics defines relationships between the energy cost and the minimization of time, and describes optimization functions as a compromise between high efficiency and high power output. Relative to the situation 200 years ago, one of the most drastical changes on our globe concerns the "tempo" of events in society, the increase in speed and power; from the speed of walking and running to that of driving and motor racing, from the full gallop of a horse to the ultrasonic propagation of a jet air craft. A basic ergodynamic theorem implies a connection between haste and waste: high speed and high power are necessarily wasteful in terms of energy utilization. The survival and evolution­ary success of organisms depends greatly on a strict balance between economical utilization of energy resources and effective utilization of time. Adaptation to the environment involves a tight control over the relative value of energy and time, and results in the divergence of power strategy and economy strategy. The problems of limited energy resources, environmental pollution and the drive to achieve various aims in a short time are general biological phenomena which are by no means restricted to the human society. The ergodynamic analysis of physiological optimization in the conflict between power and efficiency can help us rationalising our own position in balancing the relative cost of wasted energy and elapsed time. Adaptation to the rules of the ergodynamic theorem is not a diminution of our freedom to do anything at any rate, but it is the achievement of harmony with nature by which all biological systems have gained the "freedom" of evolutionary development.

Erich Gnaiger (introduction to 'The Power of Life' - I had no time yet for publication)

Power and efficiency - Thermodynamics and Tempo giusto

Efficiency and speed characterize the time value of the modern age. Processes should be efficient, fast and powerful. The term efficiency is used in common and scientific language with different meanings, and correspondingly vague definitions may lead to confusion. Today, high efficiency is valued as an achievement and goal. In physiology and ecology high efficiency is considered to be adaptive. Why, then, are efficiencies of technologically designed and biologically evolved processes limited? Did evolution paradoxically fail to exert selective pressures on the efficiency of anoxic ATP production in active vertebrate muscle, where efficiencies are so much lower than in the sluggish anaerobic intertidal mussel? The antagonis­tic energetic constraints of passive anoxia (environmen­tally induced) or active anoxia (physiologi­cally induced) provide striking examples for transitions between economy strategy with low power and high efficiency, and power strategy with high power and low but optimum efficiency. In different ecological contexts the limiting resource is either exergy, which then promotes economy strategy (E-strategy); or the limiting resource is time, and effective utilization of time is achieved in power strategy (P-strategy). Tissues geared towards high burst activity for a short time, however, encounter low efficiency and high direct costs during explosive performances of the power of life.

Reference: Gnaiger E (1993) Efficiency and power strategies under hypoxia. Is low efficiency at high glycolytic ATP production a paradox? In: Surviving Hypoxia: Mechanisms of Control and Adaptation. Hochachka PW, Lutz PL, Sick T, Rosenthal M, Van den Thillart G (eds) CRC Press, Boca Raton, Ann Arbor, London, Tokyo: 77-109.

MiPArt 6 und Tempo giusto

Das 'Finale' der MiPArt 6 von Engelbert Gagl ist ein rhythmisches Zitat von 'Bilder einer Ausstellung'. u ein Zitat aus einem Interview mit GEO.de mit dem Hamburger Pianisten Uwe Kliemt, welcher sich auf Willem Retze Talsma und Tempo giusto beruft - GEO-Magazin (Nov. 2009): Mussorgski notiert im "Marktplatz von Limoges" aus den "Bildern einer Ausstellung" fünfzig Fortissimo-Sforzati, also herausgehobene Töne, auf zwei Seiten. Das heißt, man hat unglaublich viel damit zu tun, diese Töne, die hervortreten sollen, herauszuplastizieren. Und das habe ich noch bei keiner der heutigen schnellen Versionen durchgängig gehört.

Links - Tempo giusto