From Bioblast
Jump to: navigation, search
Bioblasts - Richard Altmann and MiPArt by Odra Noel
Bioblast         MitoPedia         Terms and abbreviations         Concepts and methods         Oroboros O2k         MiP and biochemistry         Preprints and history




In an isomorphic analysis, any form of flow is the advancement of a process per unit of time, expressed in a specific motive unit [MU∙s-1], e.g., ampere for electric flow or current, Iel = delξ/dt [A≡C∙s-1], watt for thermal or heat flow, Ith = dthξ/dt [W≡J∙s-1], and for chemical flow of reaction, Ir = drξ/dt, the unit is [mol∙s­-1] (extent of reaction per time). The corresponding motive forces are the partial exergy (Gibbs energy) changes per advancement [J∙MU-1], expressed in volt for electric force, ΔelF = ∂G/∂elξ [V≡J∙C-1], dimensionless for thermal force, ΔthF = ∂G/∂thξ [J∙J-1], and for chemical force, ΔrF = ∂G/∂rξ, the unit is [J∙mol-1], which deserves a specific acronym [Jol] comparable to volt [V]. For chemical processes of reaction (spontaneous from high-potential substrates to low-potential products) and compartmental diffusion (spontaneous from a high-potential compartment to a low-potential compartment), the advancement is the amount of motive substance that has undergone a compartmental transformation [mol]. The concept was originally introduced by De Donder [1]. Central to the concept of advancement is the stoichiometric number, νi, associated with each motive component i (transformant [2]).

In a chemical reaction, r, the motive entity is the stoichiometric amount of reactant, drni, with stoichiometric number νi. The advancement of the chemical reaction, drξ [mol], is defined as,

drξ = drni·νi-1

The flow of the chemical reaction, Ir [mol·s-1], is advancement per time,

Ir = drξ·dt-1

This concept of advancement is extended to compartmental diffusion and the advancement of charged particles [3], and to any discontinuous transformation in compartmental systems [2],


Abbreviation: dtrξ [MU]

Reference: Gnaiger (1993) Pure Appl Chem

Communicated by Gnaiger E (last update 2018-11-02)
delQi (dthQi) are the changes in electric charge (heat) at the compartments of high or low electric potential (temperature) within the discontinuous system (from ref. [2]).

Advancement per volume

The advancement of a transformation in a closed homogenous system (chemical reaction) or discontinuous system (diffusion) causes a change of concentration of substances i.
The advancement causes a change of concentration due to a transformation, Δtrc, in contrast to a difference of concentrations calculated between difference states, Δtrc.
» Advancement per volume, dtrY = dtrξ∙V-1


Click to expand or collaps
» Keywords: Force and membrane potential
Fundamental relationships
» Force
» Affinity
» Flux
» Advancement
» Advancement per volume
» Stoichiometric number
mt-Membrane potential and protonmotive force
» Protonmotive force
» Mitochondrial membrane potential
» Chemical potential
» Faraday constant
» Format
» Uncoupler
» O2k-Catalogue: O2k-TPP+ ISE-Module
» O2k-Manual: MiPNet15.03 O2k-MultiSensor-ISE
» TPP - O2k-Procedures: Tetraphenylphosphonium
» Specifications: MiPNet15.08 TPP electrode
» Poster
» Unspecific binding of TPP+
» TPP+ inhibitory effect
» O2k-Catalogue: O2k-FluoRespirometer
» O2k-Manual: MiPNet22.11 O2k-FluoRespirometer manual
» Safranin - O2k-Procedures: MiPNet20.13 Safranin mt-membranepotential / Safranin
» TMRM - O2k-Procedures: TMRM
» O2k-Publications: mt-Membrane potential
» O2k-Publications: Coupling efficiency;uncoupling


  1. De Donder T, Van Rysselberghe P (1936) Thermodynamic theory of affinity: a book of principles. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press:144 pp.
  2. Gnaiger E (1993) Nonequilibrium thermodynamics of energy transformations. Pure Appl Chem 65:1983-2002. - »Bioblast link«
  3. Prigogine I (1967) Introduction to thermodynamics of irreversible processes. Interscience New York, 3rd ed:147 pp. - »Bioblast link«

MitoPedia concepts: MiP concept, Ergodynamics